Definition & Types of Technical Drawing (PDF Download Available)

This article defines technical drawing (drafting or projection) and uses different images to illustrate the meaning, and types of technical drawing widely taught in schools and practiced in industries. The eBook/technical drawing PDF document for this article is available for free download at the end of the article (along with a list of world-class technical & engineering drawing/graphics books in electronic form/PDF, available for sale at cheap prices). Both the article and eBook discuss the following topics:

  • 1.0  Definition of technical drawing
  • 2.0 Types of technical drawing: parallel projection (orthographic: first angle, and third angle; oblique: cavalier, and cabinet; axonometric: isometric, dimetric, and trimetric), and perspective projection (1-point, 2-point, and 3-point)
  • 3.0  Objectives of technical drawing
  • 4.0  Purpose of technical drawing
  • 5.0  Application of technical drawing

1.0 Definition of technical drawing

Technical drawing can be defined as the graphic representation of an object, concept, or idea using a universal language that consists of graphic symbols produced with the aid of drawing equipment/tools that can be used to measure straight and curved lines according to specified dimensions, scales, and codes of practice.

Technical drawing is used in many professions (engineering, architecture, manufacturing, construction, estate management, etc.) to draw or draft ideas and different views of physical objects like drainages, culverts, septic tanks, incinerators, houses, etc. Drawing—either artistic or technical—is one of the oldest forms of communication, and is believed to be older than verbal communication. Generally, there are two types of drawings: artistic drawing, and technical drawing:

Artistic drawing

Artistic drawing is the type of drawing that is abstract because its meaning is unique to the person/artist who creates it. In order to understand the meaning of an artistic drawing, one has to understand the artist’s point of view or motivation for producing a particular artistic drawing.

Sometimes, it is necessary to understand an artist in order to understand their artistic drawing because artists often take a unique/abstract approach when communicating through their drawings. This type of approach gives rise to various interpretations when their drawings are exposed to public view.

Regardless of how complex artistic drawings may appear, they express the clear feelings, beliefs, philosophies, and ideas of the artists who create them. Artistic drawings are generally freehand drawings or drawings made without the use of drawing instruments/tools.

Technical drawing

Technical drawing is the type of drawing that is not abstract because it doesn’t require an understanding of what its creator has in mind; rather, it requires an understanding that can only be gained by studying and using universally accepted tools, codes, and conventions applicable to technical drawing.

In addition to the previously stated definition of technical drawing, we can say that technical drawing clearly, precisely, and concisely communicates all important information conveyed by an idea produced in graphic form by the use of universally accepted codes of practice, tools, dimensions, notes, symbols, and specifications.

Download PDF: Types of Technical & Engineering Drawing Lines and Their Uses

Download PDF: Orthographic Drawing Definition, Types, Views, Tutorial & Practice

Technical drawing can be done manually on paper, or technologically on computers. When any idea or object is drawn on a computer, it is said to be drafted by computer-aided design (CAD). One major advantage of using CAD is that revisions can be easily and speedily carried out on any draft.

Any student, architect, engineer, etc., must understand the theory behind projections, dimensioning, and conventions if they wish to become proficient in drafting and interpreting drafts. It is very important for people to understand manual (traditional) drawing/drafting before exposing themselves to CAD softwares. Why? Because an understanding of manual drawings would make it easier to use CAD.

2.0 Types of technical drawing

Technical drawings are constructed on the basis of the fundamental principles of projection. There are two main types of technical drawing or projection: parallel projection, and perspective projection. (Note that each projection has various categories which will be illustrated further below.)

A projection is any drawing, draft, or representation of an idea or object that is carried out after considering views from various imaginary planes. Projections, which are quite similar to the direct views that one can see on televisions, can be used to represent actual objects if the following are employed:

  • the eye of the viewer looking at the object.
  • an imaginary plane of projection as dictated by the direction of the eye(s) of the viewer.
  • projectors or imaginary lines of sight.

The theories behind projection have been widely used to draft 3-dimensional objects on 2-dimensional media such as papers and computer screens. The theory of projection is based on two variables:

  • line of sight.
  • plane of projection: plane from which images can be projected—depending on the axis.
Figure 1: Lines of sight: parallel and perspective projections
Figure 1: Lines of sight: parallel, and perspective projections

 

Chapter 1_Figure_2_ planes of projection for parallel and perspective projectionssss.jpg
Figure 2: Planes of projection: parallel, and perspective projections

2.1   Parallel projection

Parallel projection is the type of projection in which the lines of sight or projectors are parallel to each other, and also perpendicular to the planes of objects or images. Parallel projection can be categorized or divided into orthographic, oblique, and axonometric projections.

(1) Orthographic projection

Orthographic projection (or drawing) is the type of projection in which 3-dimensional objects are represented in 2 dimensions by projecting planes (consisting of 2 major axes) of objects so that they are parallel with the plane of the medium they are projected on.

Orthographic projection can also be defined as the type of projection in which views are taken on different planes of objects and drawn (or represented) in 2 dimensions as illustrated by the principal views shown in the figures below:

Chapter 1_Figure_3_three major views of orthographic projection.jpg
Figure 3: Three major views in orthographic projection
Chapter 1_Figure_4_six general views of orthographic projection.jpg
Figure 4: Six general views in orthographic projection

There are two types of orthographic projection: first angle projection, and third angle projection:

In first angle projection (i.e., European/international system) the front view is placed at the top of a medium (paper, computer screen, etc.) along with the right side view which is placed at the left side of the front view, while the left side view is placed at the right side of the front view, and the plan (T) is placed alone beneath the front view.

In third angle projection (i.e., American system) the plan (T) is placed alone at the top, while the front view is placed beneath the plan, and the right side view is placed at the right side of the front view, while the left side view is placed at the left side of the front view. (Note that third-angle projection is more popular than first-angle projection.)

Chapter 1_Figure_5_first and third angle projections
Figure 5: First angle, and third angle projections

If you would like to read more details about orthographic projection or drawing, click here.

(2) Oblique projection

Oblique projection is the type of projection in which an object is drawn in 3 dimensions, with each of the 3 dimensions (or major planes) consisting of two lines (or major axes: either xy, or yz, or xz) perpendicular to each other (i.e. 90°), and one of the 3 planes parallel to the plane of paper, or computer screen, etc.

In addition, one of the 3 planes is projected at either 30°, 45°, or 60° to the x-axis. Oblique projection is of 2 types: cavalier, and cabinet projection.

Chapter 1_Figure_6_oblique_cavalier_cabinet projections.jpg
Figure 6: Oblique projection: cavalier, and cabinet projections

In cavalier projection, one of the 3 planes is drafted to represent a plane of an object “according to a given scale”, while in cabinet projection, one of the 3 planes is drafted to represent half of a plane of an object “according to half of a given scale”. A scale is any ratio (examples: 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000, etc.) of the size of an object on paper to the actual size of the same object in real life.

Chapter 1_Figure_7_oblique projection with orthographic views.jpg
Figure 7: Oblique projection of objects expressed in their respective orthographic views

(3) Axonometric projection

Axonometric projection is the type of projection that consists of three-dimensional drawings in which each of the 3 major axes (x, y, and z) of an object is drawn perpendicular to each other by either 30°, 45°, or 60°, and no plane of the object is drawn parallel to the plane of the medium—paper, computer screen, etc. Axonometric projection/drawing can be categorized into three types: isometric, dimetric, and trimetric projections.

Download PDF: Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics and Design in Practice_Definitions, Importance, and Applications

Isometric projection is a method of projection/drawing in which the edges of 3-dimensional objects are represented by 3 axes perpendicular to each other and inclined to each other by 120° on the plane of media—paper or computer; also, 2 of the 3 axes are inclined at either 30°, 45°, or 60° to any imaginary x-axis on any medium. 

In dimetric projection, 2 angles between any 2 major axes are unequal, while in trimetric projection, the 3 angles between the 3 major axes are unequal. Two different angles are required to construct 2 planes of objects in dimetric projections, while 3 different angles are required to construct 3 planes of objects in trimetric projections.

Chapter 1_Figure_8_Axonometric projection_Isometric_dimetric_trimetric
Figure 8: Isometric, dimetric, and trimetric projections

2.2   Perspective projection

Perspective projection is the type of projection in which objects appear smaller as their distances from an observer increases: objects’ dimensions along a line of sight appear shorter than they actually are.

There are 3 types of perspective projections: 1-point, 2-point, and 3-point projections. One-point perspective projections consist of 1 vanishing point, while 2-point and 3-point perspective projections consist of 2 and 3 vanishing points, respectively.

A vanishing point is a point of convergence where all lines of sight meet.

Chapter 1_Figure_9_one point perspective projection
Figure 9: One-point perspective projection

 

Chapter 1_Figure_10_two point perspective projection
Figure 10: Two-point perspective projection

 

Chapter 1_Figure_11_three point perspective projection
Figure 11: Three-point perspective projection

3.0 Objectives of technical drawing

The general objectives of studying technical drawing include the following:

  • to develop skills in using universally accepted tools, symbols, scales, and conventions to draw any visible object or invisible idea on paper, and computer.
  • to understand orthographic and isometric projections and employ them in drafting/drawing ideas and objects using both projections, respectively.
  • to understand and interpret technical drawings, sketches, and working drawings.
  • to develop the ability to use imagination to observe, visualize and draft objects, ideas, or concepts.
  • to develop the ability to produce clean, accurate, neat, and informative drawings in a moderate amount of time.
  • to develop the ability to take on any projects and draw environmental health science, civil, and environmental engineering objects/structures.

4.0 Purpose of technical drawing

To draft and design objects or structures, and assess how they would appear in real life after they are manufactured, fabricated, assembled, constructed, or built. For example, houses, septic tanks, drainages, etc., must be designed and assessed before they are built.

5.0 Application of technical drawing

Technical drawings have wide applications in any field in which planning and designing are required, such as architecture, manufacturing, engineering, construction, environment, estate management, etc.

Sanitarians, surveyors, environmental scientists, and civil/environmental engineers use technical drawings to supervise the construction of layouts, structures, objects, and boundaries for various types of properties (houses, etc.).

Technical drawings are also used in situations where ideas/designs for objects and structures need to be modified, and different 2-dimensional views need to be assembled into 3-dimensional views.

Generally, technical drawings are used by a variety of professions, including but not limited to:

  • engineers
  • architects
  • contractors
  • inventors
  • technicians
  • teachers
  • etc.

If you are interested in downloading the eBook of this article for free, click here. It contains all the information in this article and extra important information on its last page which has a link to images of hundreds of various shapes and sizes of objects in 2 & 3 dimensions, and categorized under different types of projections.

Thank you for reading.

 

Interested in buying world-class technical and engineering drawing eBooks? Please, read on.

Knowledge is power. The more you read, study, and absorb, the more you can greatly magnify your visualization process and become better. There is no limit.

For further reading and study of topics on technical and engineering drawings/graphics—which is essential for your education/future as an engineer/technologist and—we advise that you make a habit of reading good books.

It’s possible to get a good book from a friend or purchase it either from a local bookstore (offline) or online. In case you’d be interested in purchasing, we have six high-quality technical & engineering drawings/graphics books (eBooks/PDF books) for sale at cheap prices.

Continue scrolling down and you’ll come across their respective titles, number of pages, and lists of chapters. Each book is available for purchase at a cost of $5 (or 2,500 Naira) per book; if you wish to purchase all books, you’ll get a discount of $5 (2,500 Naira) and purchase 6 books for $25 (12,000 Naira) instead of $30 (15,000 Naira).

Note

For the past 3 years, until January 19, 2022, all the eBooks on this site were always available for free download (no payment). However, as from January 20, 2022, we introduced payments to be able to acquire, at least, little funds for the upkeep of our domain name and site maintenance for the benefit of present and future visitors who will read our articles on topics of their interest.

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The titles of the books (arranged in decreasing order of priority [from 1 to 6]—based on our assessment) and their respective number of pages and titles of chapters are as follows:

1. Technical Graphics Communication, 4th Edition, by Gary R. Bertoline, Eric N. Wiebe, Nathan W. Hartman, William A. Ross (1335 pages), 2009

Chapter 1: Introduction to Graphics Communication, pg.5

Chapter 2: The Engineering Design Process, pg.27

Chapter 3: Design in Industry, pg.46

Chapter 4: The Role of Technical Graphics in Production, Automation, and Manufacturing Processes, pg.109

Chapter 5: Design & Visualization, pg.135

Chapter 6: Technical Drawing Tools, pg.187

Chapter 7: Sketching and Text, pg.237

Chapter 8: Engineering Geometry and Construction, pg.305

Chapter 9: Three-dimensional Modeling, pg.399

Chapter 10: Multiview Drawings, pg.488

Chapter 11: Axonometric and Oblique Drawings, pg.577

Chapter 12: Perspective Drawings, pg.631

Chapter 13: Auxiliary Views, pg.652

Chapter 14: Fundamentals of Descriptive Geometry, pg.691

Chapter 15: Intersections and Developments, pg.716

Chapter 16: Section Views, pg.759

Chapter 17: Dimensioning and Tolerancing Practices, pg.818

Chapter 18: Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GDT), pg.875

Chapter 19: Fastening Devices and Methods, pg.908

Chapter 20: Working Drawings, pg.949

Chapter 21: Technical Data Presentation, pg.1064

Chapter 22: Mechanisms: Gears, Cams, Bearings, and Linkages, pg.1105

Chapter 23: Electronic Drawings, pg.1146

Chapter 24: Piping Drawings, pg.1163

Chapter 25: Welding Drawings, pg.1187

2. Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 15th Edition, by Frederick E. Giesecke, Shawna Lockhart, Marla Goodman, Cindy M. Johnson (1077 pages), 2016

Chapter 1: The World-wide Language for Graphic Design, pg.2

Chapter 2: Layouts and Lettering, pg.30

Chapter 3: Visualization and Sketching, pg.62

Chapter 4: Geometry for Modeling and Design, pg.124

Chapter 5: Modeling and Design, pg.170

Chapter 6: Orthographic Projection, pg.234

Chapter 7: 2D Drawing Representation, pg.284

Chapter 8: Section Views, pg.326

Chapter 9: Auxiliary Views, pg.362

Chapter 10: Modeling for Manufacture, pg.414

Chapter 11: Dimensioning, pg.502

Chapter 12: Tolerancing, pg.546

Chapter 13: Threads, Fasteners, and Springs, pg.592

Chapter 14: Working Drawings, pg.636

Chapter 15: Drawing Control and Data Management, pg.710

Chapter 16: Gears and Cams, pg.730

Chapter 17: Electronic Diagrams, pg.756

Chapter 18: Structural Drawing, pg.780

Chapter 19: Landform Drawings, pg.808

Chapter 20: Piping Drawings, pg.828

Chapter 21: Welding Representation, pg.846

Chapter 22: Axonometric Projection, pg.W870

Chapter 23: Perspective Drawings, pg.W900

3. Engineering Drawing & Design, 6th Edition, by David A. Madsen and David P. Madsen (1104 pages), 2017

Chapter 1: Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design, pg.2

Chapter 2: Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction Methods, pg.39

Chapter 3: Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), pg.61

Chapter 4: Manufacturing Materials and Processes, pg.109

Chapter 5: Sketching Applications, pg.162

Chapter 6: Lines and Lettering, pg.181

Chapter 7: Drafting Geometry, pg.205

Chapter 8: Multiviews, pg.228

Chapter 9: Auxiliary Views, pg.259

Chapter 10: Dimensioning and Tolerancing, pg.277

Chapter 11: Fasteners and Springs, pg. 347

Chapter 12: Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional Breaks, pg.387

Chapter 13: Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, pg.409

Chapter 14: Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations, pg.495

Chapter 15: Working Drawings, pg.526

Chapter 16: Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and Bearings, pg.561

Chapter 17: Belt and Chain Drives, pg.601

Chapter 18: Welding Processes and Representations, pg.617

Chapter 19: Precision Sheet Metal Drafting, pg.644

Chapter 20: Electrical and Electronic Drafting, pg.669

Chapter 21: Industrial Process Piping, pg.717

Chapter 22: Structural Drafting, pg.773

Chapter 23: Heating, Ventilating, and Air-conditioning (HVAC) and Pattern Development, pg.847

Chapter 24: Civil Drafting, pg.899

Chapter 25: The Engineering Design Process, pg.950

Engineering Drawing and Design Student Companion Website, pg.973

4. Engineering Design and Graphics with SolidWorks by James D. Bethune (829 pages), 2017

Chapter 1: Getting Started, pg.1

Chapter 2: Sketch Entities and Tools, pg.41

Chapter 3: Features, pg.123

Chapter 4: Orthographic Views, pg.225

Chapter 5: Assemblies, pg.299

Chapter 6: Threads and Fasteners, pg.375

Chapter 7: Dimensioning, pg.439

Chapter 8: Tolerancing, pg.509

Chapter 9: Bearings and Fit Tolerances, pg.605

Chapter 10: Gears, pg.639

Chapter 11: Belts and Pulleys, pg.699

Chapter 12: Cams, pg.725

Chapter 13: Projects, after pg.774

5. Interpreting Engineering Drawings, 8th Edition, by Theodore J. Branoff (530 pages), 2016

Unit 1: Introduction: Line Types and Sketching, pg.1

Unit 2: Lettering and Title Blocks, pg.11

Unit 3: Basic Geometry: Circles and Arcs, pg.15

Unit 4: Working Drawings and Projection Theory, pg.22

Unit 5: Introduction to Dimensioning, pg.39

Unit 6: Normal, Inclined, and Oblique Surfaces, pg.52

Unit 7: Pictorial Sketching, pg.67

Unit 8: Machining Symbols and Revision Blocks, pg.78

Unit 9: Chamfers, Undercuts, Tapers, and Knurls, pg.86

Unit 10: Sectional Views, pg.91

Unit 11: One- and Two-View Drawings, pg.110

Unit 12: Surface Texture, pg.117

Unit 13: Introduction to Conventional Tolerancing, pg.130

Unit 14: Inch Fits, pg.142

Unit 15: Metric Fits, pg.150

Unit 16: Threads and Fasteners, pg.161

Unit 17: Auxiliary Views, pg.181

Unit 18: Development Drawings, pg.190

Unit 19: Selection and Arrangement of Views, pg.196

Unit 20: Piping Drawings, pg.202

Unit 21: Bearings, pg.214

Unit 22: Manufacturing Materials, pg.220

Unit 23: Casting Processes, pg.232

Unit 24: Violating True Projection: Conventional Practices, pg.249

Unit 25: Pin Fasteners, pg.264

Unit 26: Drawings for Numerical Control, pg. 274

Unit 27: Assembly Drawings, pg.280

Unit 28: Structural Steel, pg.289

Unit 29: Welding Drawings, pg.294

Unit 30: Groove Welds, pg.305

Unit 31: Other Basic Welds, pg.315

Unit 32: Spur Gears, pg.328

Unit 33: Bevel Gears and Gear Trains, pg.337

Unit 34: Cams, pg.347

Unit 35: Bearings and Clutches, pg.353

Unit 36: Ratchet Wheels, pg.362

Unit 37: Introduction to Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, pg.368

Unit 38: Features and Material Condition Modifiers, pg.380

Unit 39: Form Tolerances, pg.394

Unit 40: The Datum Reference Frame, pg.402

Unit 41: Orientation Tolerances, pg.415

Unit 42: Datum Targets, pg.432

Unit 43: Position Tolerances, pg.440

Unit 44: Profile Tolerances, pg.461

Unit 45: Runout Tolerances, pg.469

6. Architectural Graphic Standards Student Edition, 12th Edition, by The American Institute of Architects (689 pages), 2017

Chapter 1: Functional Planning, pg.3

Chapter 2: Environment, pg.31

Chapter 3: Resilience in Buildings. Pg.53

Chapter 4: Architectural Construction Documentation, pg.77

Chapter 5: Concrete, pg.93

Chapter 6: Masonry, pg.107

Chapter 7: Metals, pg.125

Chapter 8: Wood, pg.141

Chapter 9: Glass, pg.165

Chapter 10: Element A: Substructure, pg.176

Chapter 11: Element B: Shell, pg.203

Chapter 12: Element C: Interiors, pg.363

Chapter 13: Element D: Services, pg.427

Chapter 14: Element E: Equipment and Furnishings, pg.517

Chapter 15: Element F: Special Construction, pg.565

Chapter 16: Element G: Sitework, pg.581

Appendices, pg.627

 

Thank you.

107 thoughts on “Definition & Types of Technical Drawing (PDF Download Available)

  1. So you studied architectural drawing which is so much related to this? I read civil engineering, and posted this mainly because of the ease this platform provides to gather links to from many parts of the internet and publish posts for students I teach. thanks for visiting, reading and commenting.

    Like

  2. Very concise and accurate description of technical drafting. I’m an Architect who was dragged kicking and screaming into the world of Autocad. Computer-aided drafting is much slower than hand drafting because it demands precision, but it allows revisions to be made more quickly – you can erase an entire set of plans with a click or the button. It’s unfortunate that many CAD drafters don’t know how to draw.
    In the early days of CAD, I’d get mocked: “Oh, look at the old hand drafter who needs an eraser!” but when the server crashed or the power went out, I’d still be working.

    Liked by 2 people

    1. Bunk, I enjoyed every bit of your interesting observation and comment, and must admit that many CAD drafters don’t know how to draw with tools.

      Drawing with tools is more adventurous and entertaining for me than using CAD because I’ve always liked to use freehand and do fine art long before I started technical/engineering drawing. People who rely alot on CAD won’t be able to survive in countries that have unstable power supply like my own country and that of many others.

      Thank you for visiting, reading and commenting—highly appreciated

      Liked by 1 person

        1. I was thinking a webpage would open for me to read, but rather a pdf copy appeared for me to download—titled “Andrew Loomis: Fun-with-a-pencil”…

          I have to admit that it’s an incredible book which can really help people with the basics of drawing, and which they can continue to improve upon and become much better… your grandfather must have been a brilliant artist…I’m just imagining how good you should be at drawing if you absorbed the contents of this type of book when you were a kid…

          Liked by 1 person

  3. Technical drawing class while earning my engineering degree, two years later: AutoCad. I kept the architect scale and the 30-60-90 triangle for years, though…

    Very well explained!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. interesting to meet another former technical drawing student…from your comments, it seems you have more experience using drawing tools (scale rule, 30-60-90 triangle) than autocad…i prefer using tools whenever I decide to exercise my thinking and imagination more.

      Thanks for visiting, reading and commenting.

      Like

    1. Wow! 41 years in drafting and project management? Allan, that’s still a long way for some of us to go; surely, it contains a lot more experience I still need to get.

      Nice to meet a veteran like you here 😄, and thanks for taking time to visit, read and comment.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. Great piece. I’m an electrical engineer in the Silicon Valley and took “mechanical” drawing for a year in junior high school. Have a great day. Forrest 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I deeply appreciate your remark about the post. It seems what is applicable in your country/region, is also applicable here: we do technical drawing supervised by lecturers who have a background in mechanical engineering. Thanks a lot for visiting, reading and commenting.

      Like

  5. Well done, my friend. Myself, I was not good at any work like yours. I was in Logistics.for years -until retirement in 2002. Have a good day.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I appreciate your comment regarding the post, and your experience. There are things that I might not be good at as well, like logistics, social sciences, etc. Thanks a lot for visiting and reading.

      Like

  6. I do trust all the concepts you’ve introduced to your post. They are very convincing and can definitely work. Still, the posts are too quick for beginners. May just you please extend them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

    Like

    1. thanks for visiting, and the compliment too… please note that the article was written for people to whom it can be of immense help to, not necessarily for beginners… also there are many beginners (and probably novices) who will still learn alot from it; or at least a thing or two; this depends alot on one’s own effort and understanding…

      Like

    1. please don’t say that about yourself 😄… thank you for your positive and encouraging remark…bend your mind a bit more, and you will get those things done

      Like

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    Liked by 1 person

    1. thank you for the plaudits regarding the theme, which I must admit I was lucky to have come across while searching for the one I would like…thanks alot for visiting and making such an encouraging comment

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      Like

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    Liked by 2 people

    1. thanks for reading and commenting… it’s interesting to read that you would like to start a blog…I wish you the best…

      I recommend WordPress.com for you, especially if you are inexperienced or don’t have enough money…

      Click the following link below and read the article that opens:
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      After reading it, you will understand why free WordPress.com could be the best option for you; in addition, at the concluding end of the article, you see my candid advice for people who aspire to run a website or blog.

      although you may still decide to go for WordPress.com self-hosting paid option, I advise you to sign up with free WordPress.com because it will handle all the types of security issues that often breakdown websites/blogs on WordPress.org paid options…

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      Liked by 1 person

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    Liked by 2 people

  11. I am not sure where you’re getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic information which I have been looking for.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. thanks for your thoughtful comment…I have an MSc in water resources & environmental engineering, a BSc in civil engineering, and also have well-researched self-prepared lecture notes on technical drawing which I have been using to teach university undergraduate environmental health science students for about five years

      Like

  12. Reminds me of my days as a technical writer for an engineering company. Luckily, I was able to quit after 15 years and take off with my backpack. 14 countries hitchhiked since turning age 60 two year ago and still going! Just hitchhiked to Oaxaca recently!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. for sure, you have so much experience… but saying “luckily, I was able to quit”, makes me feel you either didn’t like the job, or got tired of it…your comment expresses a great lesson: each person should follow their heart, and do things they are passionate about…thanks for commenting and sharing your thoughts

      Liked by 2 people

        1. I can understand where you are coming from…it happens a lot to many people, and could happen to me…but when we reach there, like in your case, we can look elsewhere for continuous inspiration and fulfillment…thank you

          Liked by 2 people

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