Category Archives: Technology & Futuristic Science

Potential Challenges Faced by Self-driving or Driverless Cars

As it is with most man-made products, so also it is with self-driving cars: they have benefits or advantages and also have disadvantages or challenges as well. Traditionally, cars have influenced the design of major cities, construction of roads, and design and sizes of parking lots.

But, these may likely change as self-driving cars continue to become increasingly popular and available. Self-driving, driverless, or autonomous cars have many benefits, including the potential to reduce health costs and make roads easier and safer to use.

However, as we continue to move forward into a dim or unknown future that hardly speaks in the present, it is important for us to bear in mind some potentially daunting challenges that would require the attention of scientists and governments. They include the following:

1. Ethical issues & information/data security breach

Because self-driving cars rely a lot on collected data that can be used to optimize their performance, concerns regarding the privacy and security of collected data will continue to arise or exist and need to be addressed.

Imagine scenarios where the “who, what, where, and when” of our activities and lives are captured and saved. What if such important information falls into the hands of immoral or mischievous people? Imagine situations whereby the sensory inputs that need to be created, have to be tied or linked to our smartphones, our credit cards, and personal security and biometrics.

Companies that produce self-driving cars may face possible backlash if they cannot set up effective rigorous data security measures and vigilance systems or networks. While driverless car technologies are still relatively new, it is crucial for national and regional governments to start considering guidelines that can ensure self-driving cars are utilized in ways that protect consumer privacy.

2. Unforeseen circumstances

Life is as unpredictable as the variety and possible circumstances a self-driving car could get into. It may be a challenging or even daunting task to program self-driving cars to accurately know or anticipate and respond effectively to every potential situation, such as: detecting unknown or unfamiliar objects are blocking the roadway; detecting when or whether a pedestrian is suddenly coming into the roadway; detecting when or whether an unidentified object or plane is falling on the roadway from the sky; etc.

3. Adjusting to weather conditions and climate change

In the midst of the unpredictable and deteriorating weather patterns of the present-day and likely future, self-driving cars may face an uphill task of changing from the way they operate, and adapting how they operate in response to changing weather patterns (heavy rain, falling hailstones, slippery roads, etc.). Self-driving car sensors may find it difficult to recognize some difficult weather conditions, such as the conditions that involve snow.

Concluding remarks

The challenges discussed in the preceding paragraphs may just be a few that people, companies, and governments would have to address as self-driving cars are becoming increasingly popular and widely available. A potentially tougher challenge may be: proving to the public that self-driving cars are and will continue to be safer than traditional cars.

It will be the duty of national leaders to cooperate with self-driving car industries and educate the masses on the benefits and challenges of self-driving cars and begin to think constructively in order to be better prepared to lead legislatively and find solutions for potential problems before self-driving cars enter the market on large scale.

8 Potential Benefits of Self-driving or Driverless Cars

Among all the latest and promising advancements in artificial intelligence, one of the technologies that stand out and has the potential to make a great impact on our daily lives and the world economy and societies, is that of self-driving cars which are also known as driverless or autonomous (automated) cars.

But, what is an autonomous, self-driving, or driverless vehicle?

Self-driving cars or vehicles are designed to act independently and be capable of moving from one place to another without input or interference from a human being or operator. Autonomous vehicles can include planes, cars, and ships.

Presently, all the cars that are designed to exhibit some level of self-driving ability still depend on humans to control the car steering wheel, whenever it becomes necessary to do so.

But from what we are witnessing from present-day technological advancements, the future would be different: self-driving cars will not likely have or need steering wheels to turn vehicles’ around during any ride.

Although it may sound absurd to imagine someone “driving” without ever needing to control their car, some vast minds have already been turning this thought into reality. The reality would also attract enormous implications for our day-to-day activities and lives.

There will likely be even more benefits of self-driving cars in the future than we can ever imagine, presently. For now, these are some potential benefits we can expect:

1. More safety and reduced cases of accidents on the streets

With self-driving cars’ computers constantly monitoring their respective surroundings, the traffic and streets would be safer for passengers, cyclists, and pedestrians; in addition, people would have to worry less about likely accidents caused by drunk-driving and cell phone distractions because the probability that self-driving cars would be “under the influence” is zero or next to zero.

2. Reduced hospital expenses

Consequently, as a result of fewer car accidents, there would be safer traffic and streets which, in turn, would reduce hospital expenses that stem from injuries caused by typical car accidents.

3. Improved traffic efficiency

Because self-driving cars are not like many human drivers who usually have unreliable or improper driving habits, their presence will pave way for less traffic congestion and better traffic flow. This will enable police officers to save time and focus on more serious issues instead of wasting time on traffic-related incidences or accidents and tickets.

4. Increased output or productivity

With self-driving cars that are tasked with driving and navigating, the human occupants’ respective levels of output or productivity could be positively and even greatly impacted because they wouldn’t need to spend time on driving. As a result, they would have more time to focus on improving other important aspects of their job.

5. Faster expansion of businesses

With self-driving navigational systems that can evaluate the shortest and quickest routes and also traverse them, deliveries can be made more efficiently, and businesses and economies can expand much faster than has usually been the case.

6. Reduced cases of parking problems

Large areas of space are often allocated for parking in many countries and people usually park improperly, especially in countries where traffic and parking are not so organized. But with self-driving cars that are programmed to park properly, fewer areas of space and fewer parking lots would be needed. The implication is that more space would be allocated for other purposes such as residential and commercial buildings, and agriculture.

7. More options for cheaper mobility

With self-driving cars in place, taxi or human drivers wouldn’t be necessary. As has already been estimated—if all related factors remain balanced or equal—self-driving taxis would be roughly 60% less expensive than current taxi fares.

The competition between different self-driving car services could create more options for cheaper mobility and make self-driving taxis more affordable for people to get to where they want.

8. Reduced negative environmental impact

If self-driving cars are programmed to move more efficiently and through short routes, less fuel would be consumed, thereby further resulting in much less overall energy consumption and negative environmental impact.

With the world’s focus on environmental sustainability, which is presently much higher than at any other time in recorded history, many self-driving cars will be fuelled or propelled by renewable energy sources or electricity.

This would result in even much less emission of climate- and health-damaging gases such as nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide.

Tech Industries that Would Potentially Offer the Best Job Opportunities in the Future

As many tech industries continue to grow and expand by applying new and innovative methods, a multitude of jobs and business opportunities will continue increasing.

While it is evident that emerging tech industries would create new opportunities for humans to work on different types of jobs and tasks, and undoubtedly create significant impacts on our world’s workforce, it is important to note that not all changes will be negative even if AI eventually takes over certain and many types of white-collar jobs.

Yes. self-driving vehicles could take over cabbies and truck drivers, and robots could take over many factory jobs. Even drones could likely render the jobs of snail mail carriers and messengers obsolete.

So, what tech industry jobs will be available in the future—in say 5, 10, 15, or 20 years’ time? According to Koetsier (2017), precisely 13 tech-related fields would potentially offer the best new/innovative jobs and opportunities in the future.

The 13 fields, which it is believed would likely be occupied mainly by human workers instead of delegated AI or automated technologies, are as follows:

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Augmented or Mixed Reality
  • Blockchain
  • Brain-machine Interfaces
  • Data Science
  • Drones
  • Genomics
  • Internet of Things (IoT) 
  • Nanotechnology and Swarm Intelligence
  • Quantum Computing
  • Robotics and Automation
  • 3D Printing
  • Virtual Reality

Some extra but more specific fields outside Koetsier’s list may include:

  • Advanced robotics
  • Biometric technology
  • Cloud computing technology
  • Cyber security
  • Mobile Internet
  • Virtual reality

A study conducted by Forrester Research suggests that due to developments in automation and AI, over the next 10 years roughly 15 million new jobs—which equals 10% of today’s American workforce—will be created in the USA alone.

The healthcare industry is one of the industries that will continue creating numerous jobs opportunities—especially when there is more need in the present time than at any other time in history—to employ people who can assist in providing treatments for symptoms that arise from addictions to technological devices and applications.

Generally, the fields that would be valuable and potentially offer the best job opportunities in the future would also have something in common with what is known or referred to as “soft human skills” which includes creativity, emotional intelligence, and social skills. People who have these skills will find it easier to occupy new and interesting job positions.

Jobs that Would be More Difficult for AI and Robots to Replace or Perform

As discussed in the article titled “Jobs that May Increasingly Continue to be Replaced by AI and Robots”, it is likely that AI technologies and robots will increasingly continue to replace human workers in the future.

However, as can be clearly sensed and seen today, there are still many types of jobs—occupied by humans—that AI technologies and robots are not intelligent enough or well suited to perform.

A study carried out by Oxford Martin School grouped the jobs that can’t be automated—and are thus unlikely to be replaced by AI technologies and robots—into three major classes or groups:

1. Jobs that require active or hands-on participation or manipulation and occupied by:

  • Firefighters
  • Oral surgeons
  • Chiropractors
  • Makeup artists

2. Jobs that require at least a considerable degree of creativity and occupied by:

  • Art directors
  • Choreographers
  • Curators

3. Jobs that require social or societal perception, sensing, or awareness and occupied by:

  • Clergy (clergymen and clergywomen)
  • Coaches and scouts
  • Mental health workers
  • Nurses

The study also determined the probability (in %) of each of the above listed workers’ jobs becoming automated—which is low; the estimates indicate how unlikely it would be for the jobs—occupied by humans—to be replaced by AI technologies and robots:

  • Firefighters: 17%
  • Oral surgeons: 0.36%
  • Chiropractors: 2.7%
  • Makeup artists: 1%
  • Art directors: 2.3%
  • Choreographers: 0.4%
  • Curators: 0.7%
  • Clergy (clergymen and clergywomen): 0.8%
  • Coaches and scouts: 1.3%
  • Mental health workers: 0.3%
  • Nurses: 0.9%

A number of other occupations and skills aren’t mentioned in each of the three major classes or groups listed above. The study by Oxford Martin School is just one case of a research on the types of workers/jobs that would be difficult for AI technologies and robots to replace.

The study by Oxford Martin School provided me with insight which I used to identify various factors that make it more difficult for some jobs to be automated/replaced by AI technologies and robots. The factors include the following:

1. The absence of large quantities of data

None of the workers/jobs under the three major classes listed above deal with the collection and analysis of large quantities of data. In direct contrast, if you consider the types of jobs performed by workers in the financial sector, where trends and figures are a major part of everyday tasks, you would easily understand why most or all the jobs in the financial sector would likely be lost to AI technologies and robots. People who occupy jobs in the financial sector will be easier to replace than people who occupy jobs in sectors that don’t deal with large quantities of data.

2. The need for/presence of human interaction

The jobs that are associated with the types of workers listed above require some degree of interpersonal or human communication. Human beings will always be superior to AI systems and robots when it comes to interpersonal or human communication, and people who have strong communication skills will likely have stronger job security if they’re handling jobs that require human interaction.

3. The need for/presence of minimal repetition or routine

Because AI technologies and robots excel at repetitive tasks, jobs that require minimal/minimum degree of repetition everyday are less likely to be easily replaced by AI technologies and robots.

4. The need to apply intuition or learn through simple observation

AI technologies and robots rely greatly on monitors and cameras to gather data and learn, in order to function according to design or expectation. Therefore, the type of jobs that require a high degree of intuition or flexibility in reasoning/thinking will be more difficult for AI technologies and robots to replace.

Concluding remarks

If you consider the four factors briefly discussed above and think about several occupations that are easier or more difficult for AI technologies and robots to replace, you’d be better placed to understand the skills and jobs that humans would continue to thrive with in the future without facing serious threats from AI technologies and robots.

It has to be noted that jobs that are unpredictable and require intuition, planning, and deep thinking are ill-suited for/not compatible with AI technologies and robots, and can therefore be adequately handled or occupied by competent humans. Such jobs exist in universities and other educational institutions where AI technologies and robots will take the back seat.

Jobs that May Increasingly Continue to be Replaced by AI and Robots

As artificial intelligence (AI) and robots continue developing and becoming more intelligent and sophisticated, many governments and economies have to be concerned about where the trend could lead to.

Yes, it is likely that robots will increasingly continue to replace human workers. But what number and types of jobs will increasingly continue to be replaced by robots?

For sure, nobody can be quite certain. Therefore, it is much more important now—than at any other time in history—for people to be aware of the possibilities that surround the future of jobs that are under the radar of AI.

It’s also much more important for people to study to a greater extent and acquire new and diverse skill sets that can keep them grounded in case detrimental changes occur in work/workforce in the future. 

Dr. Kai-Fu Lee (founder of Sinovation Ventures, and a leading expert on the growth of AI) made a statement regarding the types of jobs that will most likely be replaced by robots: “Every job which takes less than 5 seconds to think will be done by robots”.

This statement can serve as a helpful guideline for people who wish to make projections into the future, especially when considering their personal jobs. Think for a moment about the countless types of jobs that exist and select a few you can do without using up to 5 seconds to think.

In order to have a firmer job security in a future where robots will likely perform tasks that can be done by taking less than 5 seconds to think, people have to acquire the type of skills that enable them perform more creative and complicated tasks that are somewhat outside the league of AI and robots.

But which jobs are within the league of AI and robots and may increasingly continue to be replaced by AI and robots? According to the author of Rise of the Robots, Martin Ford, routine and repetitive jobs will be first replaced by/assigned to robots: “I personally believe that, in the future, we could well get into a situation where jobs simply disappear. And it will be especially any kind of job that is routine or repetitive on some level. A lot of those jobs are going to disappear.”

Most people wrongly assume that routine, automated, or repetitive tasks are not white-collar jobs. However, if we pay close attention to Dr. Lee’s statement and appreciate the potential of robots and AI technologies, we will come to realize that robots and AI technologies can also replace some white-collar jobs.

In fact, several experts in the field of AI once noted that the jobs that analyze data and trends will be the first to be occupied by robots. Unsurprisingly, tasks that were once performed by 600 traders employed by American investment bank Goldman Sachs Group, were later being performed by only 2 human beings and an orderly system of AI tools.

In addition to the financial and healthcare industries, it seems most jobs in the transportation industry will also be increasingly replaced by robots. Self-driving cars are already replacing jobs like taxi driving, and it may even become more common to see ships, boats, and aircraft controlled by AI and robots instead of humans.

Futurist Thomas Frey believes that up to 64 jobs will disappear when self-driving cars eventually become very popular. Among his list include the following:

  • taxi, bus, and Uber driving jobs
  • fire truck, ambulance, and tractor driving jobs
  • delivery and courier jobs
  • road construction/traffic control flagger jobs
  • traffic analyst jobs
  • forklift driving jobs
  • lawnmower and snowplough operator jobs
  • automated fruit harvester operator jobs
  • valet jobs
  • auto sales jobs
  • account managers
  • auto and transmission repair shop jobs
  • etc.

Generally, the jobs or tasks listed above don’t require much use of human qualities such as intuition, complex communication, negotiation, creativity, emotional intelligence, and training/coaching.

But to a great extent, they involve physical labor and their outcomes are direct and predictable, thus making them exceptional candidates that are qualified to be replaced by AI and robots.

The Possibility of Many People Losing Their Jobs to AI and Robots in the Future

The jobs that were done by people in bygone decades, centuries, and ages, were actually done only by people—through and through! But that hasn’t been quite the case in this age because modern-day AI technologies and robots have been taking up many jobs or job positions that were performed by humans decades, centuries, and ages ago.

With the exponential rise in technological advancements and the use of artificial intelligence and robots (or robotic and automation technologies) in this age, perhaps, one important question that has to be asked is: will many people in the world’s workforce be replaced by artificial intelligence and robots in the future?

What is the possibility that many people—not just few—could lose their jobs to AI and robots which have the capacity to do the same tasks as a large number of humans or manual labourers?

The possibility is actually there, and it seems to be on the high side. According to a report titled “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation?”, two researchers, Michael A. Osborne and Carl Benedikt Frey, noted that over the next two decades, up to forty-seven percent of workers in the USA will face the danger of losing their jobs to robots or AI technologies.

A study carried out by McKinsey Global Institute, titled “A Future That Works: Automation, Employment, and Productivity”, predicts that by the year 2055, almost half of the tasks usually done by human beings, will be performed by robots; however, the study focused on specific tasks that are likely going to be automated; it didn’t focus on non-specific jobs. In another study, McKinsey Global Institute reckoned that, by the year 2030, AI technologies could take over the jobs of between 400 and 800 million workers.

If between 400 and 800 million people could lose their jobs to AI technologies in about a decade from today, then it is crucial for people to be learning skills that would enable them to engage in specific tasks that aren’t automated or aren’t likely going to be automated.

Because the possibility exists that many people could lose their jobs to AI technologies and robots in the future, people and governments should concentrate on other avenues of earning income (basic universal income, supplemental income programs, etc.) and easing themselves from financial burdens so that they won’t be in an awful situation if AI technologies and robots take up their job positions.

Advancements in AI technologies and robotics could pose a threat to people’s job security

Artificial intelligence has really helped mankind a lot; on the other hand, it has left bits of a sour taste in its train: one of the toughest challenges that people’s job security may face in the future could be due to the rapid changes that have been occurring in technologies that are aimed at enhancing artificial intelligence.

If left unchecked, this is an issue that may force countries, governments, public and private sectors, and experts in various fields to put heads together in order to find a balance that can permit maximum use of AI technologies and robots and prevent serious or any threats to people’s job security.

Although it’s not always possible to predict how new or newer technologies will increase the number of jobs in working places, it is important for the world not to neglect the possibility that continuous increase in AI technologies and robots could outnumber any additional jobs due to technological advancements; moreover, it’s important for the world to know how to handle it if it actually ends up happening, turning into an issue, and becoming detrimental to human welfare.

9 Major & Potential Applications of Blockchain

Blockchain was invented in 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Since more than a decade ago, blockchain has been attracting a lot of interest from the public, especially because of the rise in value and popularity of Bitcoin.

The major reason why Satoshi invented Blockchain was to provide a platform for Bitcoin to be mined and used; however, if we take a closer look today, it wouldn’t be wrong to assume that Satoshi used Bitcoin to introduce the world to other applications of blockchain.

After bitcoin started becoming popular, people soon realized other uses or applications of blockchain which are far beyond the domain of bitcoin and cryptocurrencies.

Because blockchain provides a high level of transparency and security, and removes the need for middlemen or third parties, and saves time and money, it is greatly impacting many fields or sectors, in more efficient and inspiring ways. The following are major and potential applications of blockchain:

1. Enhance internet security

Blockchain makes it possible for peer-to-peer transactions to occur, and properties such as money and data to be transferred over the internet, between billions of connected devices or parties, and under high security without the need for a middleman, third party, or centralized authority.

Blockchain has the potential to solve internet security and scalability challenges because it consists of a distributed digital ledger that is shared between participants in its network which is housed on the internet and makes it possible for transactions or events to be validated and recorded, and not be subject to removal or amendment.

Blockchain network processes data transactions over the internet and across countless devices that are owned and operated by different people and organizations; in fact, the blockchain network can store unlimited amounts of internet data.

Because blockchain network is tamper-proof and not under the control of a single person or organization, it has an extra layer of security that hackers would need to break before gaining access to the network.

The high level of encryption used in blockchain makes it almost impossible, if not completely impossible, for hackers or cyber-criminals to hack the network and alter and remove existing data records.

2. Provide proof or evidence of legal ownership

The proof or evidence of ownership of most people’s assets is usually documented on paper. In the modern world, it’s easy to get involved in legal issues in many ways: there could be family disputes, documents could get missing as a result of fire, etc.

If legal paperwork gets missing, it could take a lot of time and effort to trace and reclaim any asset associated with such paperwork. But if transactions and titles are recorded on the blockchain network, it wouldn’t be difficult to trace and reclaim missing or stolen assets, especially as records on blockchain are known to be tamper-proof and not subject to removal or amendment.

If transactions involving portable or high-value assets are recorded on blockchain, and assets get missing or stolen, they can be easily traced and reclaimed by companies that work on providing blockchain-based services concerned with validating and recording transactions involving assets.

3. Enable payments to be made, especially without a middleman or third party

Money transfer was the first and has been one of the most popular applications of blockchain technology. Prior to October 2008 when Satoshi published his white paper, economists had been working on how to get rid of the problem of double-spending (of digital currencies) and using trusted third parties or middlemen such as banks.

When Satoshi finally came with his white paper and blockchain, it paved the way for banks to be removed from payment transactions, and enabled peer-to-peer payments which take place from anywhere between a few seconds and few minutes.

4. Provide security for identity, and allow verification of identity

We live in an age where most people have both physical and digital or online identities with credit agencies and on social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram which allow people to display their digital or online identities.

But as we all know, online identities are often tampered with; this calls for a reliable digital identity system like blockchain which can maintain people’s records and online identities, and make them tamper-proof without giving hackers and private corporations loopholes to steal data and make money from selling data.

Many companies are already using blockchain technology to create a secure digital identification system that would enable people or users to control their digital identities; examples of such companies are Deloitte (which created Deloitte’s Smart Identity System) and Microsoft (which created Microsoft’s authenticator app).

5. Ensure transparency in voting

There has been a lot of voting fraud in many countries. By using blockchain technology, voting frauds would certainly be stopped and made to become an issue of the distant past: employing blockchain in digital voting would ensure that there is a high level of security and transparency in voting; in case voting results are manipulated outside the blockchain network, it would be possible to use the blockchain network to understand what was manipulated, and when and how it was manipulated.

6. Make direct or peer-to-peer energy trading possible

The blockchain network can make peer-to-peer energy distribution possible and enable people to trade energy between each other without employing the services of energy companies (third parties or middlemen). According to RenewableEnergyWorld.com, peer-to-peer energy distribution will inspire investors to put more effort into renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro) projects and gradually leave behind carbon-emitting electricity generation which is believed to be damaging the atmosphere and environment.

7. Empower artists and people in the entertainment industry

Platforms like SoundCloud, YouTube, Netflix, and Spotify, act as middlemen or third parties and often exert too much influence or power over the users and artists on their platforms, thereby causing a lot of disputes in regard users’ or artists’ content distribution, compensation, and digital rights, amongst others.

As artists are growing increasingly discontented with the actions and policies of such platforms, using blockchain network can make it possible for considerable power and influence to be transferred to users and artists since middlemen would be removed and the platforms’ users or artists will have a lot or complete control of their own encrypted records of ownership, content access, distribution, compensation, and digital rights, amongst others.

8. Enable proper healthcare record-keeping and prevention of medical theft

Two major problems in medical sectors across the world, especially in the USA, have been improper healthcare paper record-keeping and medical identity theft which have resulted in healthcare frauds that cost about billions of dollars annually.

Blockchain can solve these problems if all past and present medical information belonging to patients’ ailments, treatments, and family history of medical problems are stored in its network which is tamper-proof and has the ability to make every record permanent and not subject to adjustments.

9. Makes it possible for consumers to monitor each product’s supply chain

Blockchain can make it possible for consumers to know where products—food in particular—are coming from, especially during pandemics or when there is a spread of food-borne illness that consumers should be aware of.

With the help of blockchain, consumers can trace their food from its place of origin to their home, and make wise decisions about the products they intend to buy; Blockchain can also help sellers or entrepreneurs find out whether inefficiencies exist in their supply chains.

Major Problems Associated with Blockchain

Although Blockchain is revolutionary and uses the spectacular properties of distributed consensus algorithm and cryptographic techniques to offer a transparent, accountable, synchronized, immutable and secure ledger platform that is being maintained by a group of users across a geographically distributed network that doesn’t need middlemen or any trusted authority, there are few problems associated with it.

The interests of various governments, nature of different businesses, and changing needs of various organizations have to be addressed in a way that would make it possible to overcome the following problems associated with blockchain in order to enhance user experience, further reduce cost, and improve the quality service the technology offers:

1. Environmental problems as a result of maintaining blockchain security

Complex algorithms are used to maintain blockchain security and keep the blockchain running, and the operation of the complex algorithms—especially to direct or control cryptocurrency platforms such as Bitcoin—requires large amounts of fossil fuel and coal to generate sufficient computing power; as a result, a lot of energy is being used up and the environment ends up being polluted just to maintain blockchain security.

As blockchain technology continues evolving, the need will arise to design and produce more efficient hardware that would use less energy—especially renewable energy—instead of fossil fuel and coal which are believed to have caused a lot of global warming.

2. Slow and expensive blockchain transactions as a result of maintaining blockchain security

Blockchain secures itself in a way that makes it difficult for hackers to alter or tamper with its network, but maintaining the blockchain security comes at a cost for the users too: it makes blockchain transactions slow and expensive.

For instance, to increase payment security for millions of users worldwide, Bitcoin-blockchain transactions are recorded only once every ten minutes, and the Bitcoin-blockchain network is only capable of processing a maximum of seven transactions per second.

If everyone in the world has to make a transaction, just imagine the delays that would occur as a result of doing what is necessary to maintain the level of security in the blockchain network: recording transactions only once every ten minutes and processing a maximum of seven transactions per second.

Fortunately, transactions could become faster and less expensive if each block size in the blockchain is increased beyond the fixed limit which is one megabyte. If the block size becomes bigger, it will be possible to increase the number of transactions processed per second.

For example, the current maximum number of transactions processed per second can be doubled if the current Bitcoin block size, which is one megabyte, is increased to two megabytes.

3. Fraudulent activities due to the hype surrounding blockchain

Because blockchain is decentralized and involves mostly anonymous users, there are concerns that the platform could become increasingly exposed to illegal activities such as money laundering, fraud, and impersonation.

In order to target and scam investors, fraudsters have often capitalized on the hype and excitement around blockchain, especially in regard to cryptocurrencies. In addition, scammers have often posed as legitimate cryptocurrency websites and defrauded unsuspecting cryptocurrency owners who usually don’t know what is going on until they have been duped.

Even legitimate companies could make statements or announcements to mislead investors and make them take decisions that can increase the stock or price of a cryptocurrency that’s tied to blockchain and its network.

In the past, the Securities and Exchange Commission took action against companies that made deceptive and false statements about blockchain in order to influence investors and increase the price of a particular stock or commodity tied to blockchain technology.

4. Detrimental political decisions due to the self interests of various governments

Unlike banks and brokers which are controlled and regulated by governments and make a lot of profit from using middlemen, blockchain technology doesn’t make use of middlemen; it doesn’t even need them.

It is widely believed that some governments—or “establishments”—are interested in seeing blockchain fail because it poses serious danger to their business, due to the mere fact that blockchain is decentralized and doesn’t need the services of middlemen.

A decentralized framework like blockchain might not be able to meet most governments’ regulatory requirements because of political play by the governments. In addition, over-regulation by governments, establishments, or regulators may impede blockchain developments and acceptance.

In countries where banks and brokers exert enormous influence on governments, legislators, and politicians, established financial institutions could dramatically remove, restrict, or reduce blockchain’s availability in order to gain an advantage.

If for any reason governments are interested in influencing the value of price or value of any stock tied to blockchain technology, they could make certain decisions; for example, in 2017 when China decided to halt trading activities on several platforms, the price of Bitcoin plummeted.

In 2018, within 24 hours after various governments in Asia made announcements concerning expected regulatory changes, there was around a hundred billion dollar drop in the cryptocurrency market.

Definition of Blockchain

Blockchain has been evolving steadily since 2008 when the technology that drives it came into existence, and the first application that was tested on blockchain technology was Bitcoin; the general idea of blockchain was first introduced in the Bitcoin protocol which was published in 2008.

Some people usually assume that Bitcoin is blockchain because Bitcoin was the first application used on blockchain technology; however, Bitcoin is not blockchain: Bitcoin is an application of blockchain technology.

In 2009, Bitcoin was the first decentralized cryptocurrency produced as a result of activities on the Bitcoin blockchain which is a distributed database that records every Bitcoin transaction on a public decentralized ledger and gives incentives or tokens to users (peers) who validate transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain network by using their computer nodes.

The reason why some people mistaken Bitcoin for blockchain, and vice-versa, is likely because Bitcoin was the first and is still the most significant application of blockchain. Apart from Bitcoin, blockchain has other applications or uses.

Although blockchain was invented to produce cryptocurrency or digital money, almost every day, people have been using it for other important purposes and finding more and more issues or problems to solve by using it.

Blockchain, which began in 2008, has been existing for about 13 years and elevated the financial institution. But what is blockchain? This article defines what blockchain is through discussions on the following topics:

  • Blockchain: progress beyond cloud computing
  • Who invented the term “blockchain”?
  • What is blockchain?
  • Blockchain: a form of distributed ledger technology

Blockchain: progress beyond cloud computing

The 1st generation computer called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was developed in 1946; later on, in 1977, Apple II came along the way, and IBM (Intel 8088) was introduced in 1981.

About 10 years later, the internet began in 1991, and after 15 years cloud computing framework arrived in 2006 and was taking control of the client/server framework.

Cloud computing, which is a type of internet-based computing that is centralized or has a centralized authority, provides data and shared computer processing resources to computers and other types of devices; in addition, it also provides a foundation to merge software and hardware resources supplied from different regions by different groups.

Cloud computing actually reduces the cost of improved efficiency and operation; however, the centralization associated with cloud computing has its own issues such as:

  • low data security.
  • less assurance of complete integrity or trust in its mechanism.
  • possibility for lack of data accountability.
  • disconnection between server and cloud computing.

Blockchain presents a good response that can tackle issues faced by cloud computing, and its underlying technology can overcome the shortcomings of cloud computing. Simply put: blockchain makes it possible for:

  • decentralization to occur and prevent centralization or extreme concentration of central power.
  • data security to be heightened.
  • steady network connection across all connected computers; is and always be unstoppable and fully accessible to everybody.
  • high assurance of complete integrity or full transparency in decentralized mechanism or administration.

Who invented the term “blockchain”?

When the First Global Blockchain Summit was held in Shanghai in October 2015, and people (regulatory policymakers, corporate executives, entrepreneurs, investors, academic experts, and geeks) assembled and discussed opportunities and applications of blockchain technology, the first question that was asked was “who invented the term “blockchain”?

The question might have been asked because the inventor of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, didn’t mention the word “blockchain” in his 2008 Bitcoin white paper. The term that was mentioned was “chain of blocks”, not “blockchain”.

What seemed to have happened was that through private correspondence among early Bitcoin pioneers in the Bitcoin community, the term “blockchain” slowly evolved and became widely used and accepted.

It is known that Hal Finney, who is one of the early Bitcoin pioneers, used the phrase “block chain” several times in his correspondence with Satoshi Nakamoto. The two separate words in the phrase “block chain” were later combined together to form the term or word “blockchain”.

What is blockchain?

Blockchain is a secure distributed ledger technology (DLT) that is completely decentralized, consists of a globally distributed database, is unstoppable, and runs on all computers without being administered by a central or trusted authority.

Blockchain has always been increasing in size or length as a result of multiple new blocks being constantly connected or chained to countless old blocks that are irreplaceable. Since blockchain is completely decentralized, it doesn’t have a boss or central authority, administrator, or administration; this significantly reduces the complexity and cost of financial transactions and data sharing.

Blockchain technology’s immutable chain system, in which blocks are chained or linked together, establishes a single source of truth for a total database of information in the form of ordered records of transactions.

Blockchain uses the outstanding features of distributed consensus algorithms and cryptographic techniques to maintain a synchronized ledger platform and provide a high degree of transparency and accountability from a group of users across different geographical locations in a distributed network.

Each time new blocks are created and added or linked to the existing blockchain, the blockchain network synchronizes and replicates the same information (new blocks) on all computers in the blockchain system or network which resides on the internet. Replication of information in this manner makes blockchain technology irreplaceable and highly transparent.

The Bitcoin blockchain is the first secure, open, and transparent distributed ledger technology (DLT) that doesn’t require a central or trusted authority, and provides a solution to the problem of double-spending of digital currency.

Blockchain: a form of distributed ledger technology

Blockchain is a type of distributed ledger technology driven by a peer-to-peer (P2P) network that doesn’t rely on a centralized party or group of persons to relay information to every node which communicates directly with each other in a blockchain system.

Any transaction that occurs in a blockchain system is transmitted in a peer-to-peer (P2P) manner, validated by all nodes in the system, and added to the copy of the “ledger” which is sustained or maintained by each node. Any time validation occurs, each node will be updated with the most current version or state of information that has been added to the blockchain.

However, it has to be noted that the nodes in a blockchain system might not always have the most current version or updated state at all times because the network could be congested or delayed.

On the other hand, each individual node keeps the highest scoring version it possibly can, and whenever it receives a higher scoring version, it will overwrite its own version with it and transmit or broadcast the information to its peers through other nodes. The scoring system depends on the blockchain specification.

In order for a node to successfully verify a particular transaction on a blockchain, it would simply query nearby nodes or peers for their own copies and confirm the transaction after it gets enough identical copies from other nodes (its peers).

7 Reasons Why Your Mac Lacks Sufficient Drive Space

Although Mac is a great product you should be proud of, you might be bothered why your Mac lacks sufficient drive space, especially after you have gotten so accustomed to using it. This article provides a brief insight on 7 reasons why your Mac lacks sufficient drive space.

First and foremost, it is important to note that Mac is not designed to have as much drive space as “major” computers have: although Mac mimics actual laptops, it’s not designed to have as much drive space as actual laptops do; generally, if you use your Mac every now and then, its drive space will gradually reduce after a period of time. 

Good enough, it’s possible to clean your drive space by removing junk and other by-products related to the 7 reasons—as briefly discussed in this article—why your Mac lacks sufficient drive space. Although cleaning your Mac can be an exhausting task, you can patiently do the cleaning process needed to free up your drive space. The more you free up drive space in your Mac, the faster your Mac will work.

Read More: How to Clean Up Your Mac

The following are 7 Reasons Why Your Mac Lacks Sufficient Drive Space

1. Application Support Files Have Accumulated in Your Drive Space

Some application support files contain a large amount of data. Usually, after you use your Mac for a period of time, you’ll find the support files of unused and uninstalled applications in the Library/Application Support Folder. If you uninstall applications but don’t delete the support folders associated with them, the support folders will continue accumulating, and gradually reduce your drive space.

2. Hidden Files Have Taken Up a Chunk of Your Drive Space

It’s normal for Mac users to hide files and forget that they exist; usually, Mac users have duplicate files. Your Mac might be cluttered with useless and hidden copies of photos, images, folders, files, and even duplicate files, both large and small alike. If you’re not the only person using your Mac, then it’s likely that the same music files, documents, and even images could have been saved twice and taken up considerable drive space.

3. Your Drive Space Cache Has Grown in Volume

The applications and system processes in your Mac create a cache which is a temporary service file. The total volume of the cache in your Mac could have grown to thousands of megabytes—or even tens of gigabytes. The problem with your cache could be that if you reduce its volume or empty it, it will still be created whenever you use an application.

4. Unused Language Files Unnecessarily Occupy Space/Have Increased in Size

Mac uses applications that have localized versions of many languages; as a result, there are often many unused language files that occupy a surprising amount of space in your drive. The unused files can even increase in size, depending on the applications installed on your Mac. You can easily and safely delete the languages you don’t use.

5. Your Logs Folder Has Been Continuously Written on

Log files don’t play a part in system performance; they are only products of your applications’ functions. In your system Library, the Logs Folder stores logs of your system, its applications, and the mobile devices that have been connected to it—if any. At times problems arise when the log files are handled in the operating system; the problems create situations whereby log files are continuously written on and gradually take up large amounts of disk space.

6. Your System Sleep Image Has Taken Up Considerable/Large Drive Space

Sleep image (“sleepimage”) is a file created by your Mac system whenever it is put in sleep mode. This “sleepimage” file, which can be small or large, is used whenever your battery is operating by discharging power during sleep. The sleep image feature is very useful if your Mac has limited drive space, and your battery can work for a long time; on the other hand, it can continue to take up considerable drive space if left unchecked.

7. Your Mobile Device(s)’s Backups Have Taken Up Considerable Drive Space

If you have a large number of mobile device backups for messages, photos, movies, music, and other files, they could possibly consume up to/more than fifty percent of your drive space, thus causing your Mac to lack drive space.

Conclusion

Your Mac lacks sufficient drive space because of one or many of the reasons briefly discussed above. Although cleaning your Mac can be an exhausting task, you can patiently do the cleaning process and make your Mac work faster. Freeing up drive space can also help you prevent the type of data loss that was reported in February 2021, when the  Mac operating system “Big Sur” upgrade caused data loss on any Mac that had low drive space.

Read More: How to Clean Up Your Mac

Societal Customs/Practices that Have Been Resisting the Adoption of Blockchain Technology

Although Blockchain technology has been gradually transforming the economic landscape, and various ways in which business transactions are being handled, its adoption is still being resisted by societal customs/practices in many societies.

This article discusses some major societal customs or practices that have been resisting the adoption of blockchain technology. Societal customs/practices can be regarded as a group of rules or activities that influence the way(s) in which people relate or interact with each other.

In order to be face less resistance and be easily adopted, the acceptance of blockchain technology has to overcome societal customs/practices that have been ingrained into societies or groups of people over a long period of time. The following are major societal customs/practices that have been resisting the adoption of Blockchain technology in many societies:

1. The existing market tradition or culture in a society

According to Shackelford & Myers (2017) and Crosby et al. (2016), blockchain technology has to overcome the tradition or culture of existing markets. The implication of this is that the adoption of blockchain technology has been facing resistance from people who have found it difficult―for one reason or another―to accept it, or change their opinion about it. Some studies (Andreasyan, 2016; Brandman & Thampapillai, 2016; Deloitte, 2016) have noted that businesses, authorities and consumers―which have been ingrained with existing market tradition or culture―do not have sufficient understanding about how blockchain works, its potential uses, and what can be achieved by using it.

2. Laws or regulations

Certain laws or regulations prevent the use of blockchain digital currency technology in a society. Sedgwick (2017) noted that the use of cryptocurrencies are completely disallowed in countries like Ecuador, Bangladesh, and Bolivia; although this is the case in many places, Cermeño (2016) stated that regulators and policymakers are concentrating their efforts on regulating the ways in which cryptocurrencies can be used; their aim is to prevent criminal activities and taxation.

Generally speaking, laws or legislation have to be modified or amended in order to incorporate the use of blockchain technology in many societies.

3. The type of government: governance

The level of resistance to blockchain technology depends on the type of government (or government activities) in place. Ølnes et al. (2017) noted that, although blockchain needs to be controlled by government, it is also a viable tool for governing people. There is a difference in the extent to which different political parties believe in different types of technologies; for blockchain technology to be easily adopted, the right belief system should be in place; this would help inspire and create appropriate governance frameworks and applicable laws that make blockchain technology easily adopted.

Conclusion

In order for blockchain technology to face lesser resistance and become more accepted than it has been, existing market traditions have to be modified, laws have to be rewritten, and various types of government systems have to be more aware of what the real nature of blockchain technology is all about: the societal customs/practices that have been resistant to the adoption of blockchain technology can be shaped and erased, depending on the type of society.

References

Andreasyan, T. (2016). ISITC Europe and oasis to define technical standards for blockchain. Banking Technology, 13.

Brandman, G., & Thampapillai, S. (2016). Blockchain – Considering the regulatory horizon. Oxford Business Law Blog.

Cermeño, J. S. (2016). Blockchain in financial services: Regulatory landscape and future challenges for its commercial application. Madrid, Spain: BBVA Research.

Crosby, M., Pattanayak, P., Verma, S., & Kalyanaraman, V. (2016). Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin. Applied Innovation, 2, 6–10.

Deloitte (2016). Blockchain: Enigma. Paradox. Opportunity. London: Deloitte LLP.

Ølnes, S., Ubacht, J., & Janssen, M. (2017). Blockchain in government: Benefits and implications of distributed ledger technology for information sharing. Government Information Quarterly, 34(3), 355–364.

Sedgwick, K. (2017). Five countries where bitcoin is illegal.

Shackelford, S. J., & Myers, S. (2017). Block-by-block: leveraging the power of blockchain technology to build trust and promote cyber peace. Yale Journal of Law and Technology, 19, 334.

A Review of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor software for PC

Although many PDF editors exist in the world, only a few are easy to use, effective, cheap or affordable, and can be used for many purposes. As usual, whatever information or thing I feel is good or important, I always try my best to make it available through blog posts on this site―and this one is no exception.

This post is a review of PDFelement Pro editor (from iskysoft.com) which is among the best PDF editors on the planet because it is effective, affordable, and can be used for many purposes that are relevant to files. I advise that you recommend it to your family members and friends who could need it for practical or professional reasons.

The PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor for PC has a well-designed split-pane interface and a toolbar that stretches from the right to left edges at the top of the PC screen. The toolbar consists of a sub-menu of different tools that have their respective icons which indicate different functions for editing PDF files, converting PDF files, and carrying out other functions which are listed below: under “Uses of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor”.

On the left of the PC screen is a pane that enables any user of the PDF file editor software to open and navigate through the most recently opened PDF files, and their pages. Generally, the main tools also include functions for creating PDF files, editing PDF files, converting PDF files to different types of office files, modifying PDFs, cropping PDF files, and changing the background color of any PDF file or image from one color to another.

Click here and read more details about PDFelement Pro―PDF editor

Uses of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor

After downloading the PDFelement Pro editor and using it, I have observed that it is an easy PDF editor software which has features or functions that can be used for the following purpose:

  • to edit PDF texts, images, and graphics: the software has features that can be used to add notes, instructions or annotations to PDF files.
  • to convert PDF texts, images, and graphics: the software converts PDF files into other formats like MS Word, MS Excel, PowerPoint, Epub, HTML, RTF, TIFF, etc. It is possible to convert files because the PDF editor has OCR (Optical Character Recognition) tool.
  • to perform multiple PDF conversions, and extract data in bulk by using the batch processing tool.
  • to create PDF texts, images, and graphics from Office documents (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc.).
  • to redact PDF texts, images, and graphics, and easily compress them.
  • to collaborate with other people or teams that are interested in using several cloud services like Dropbox, Evernote, and Google Drive to work on PDFs. This feature enables many users to access important documents, and work together from any part of the world.

In addition, the software can be used to:

  • combine or merge many PDF files, and split large PDF files into separate files.
  • protect PDF files by signing documents and validating signatures; the software can also be used to clear all signatures: it has a feature that can protect documents with passwords.
  • etc.

Read more information about PDFelement Pro―PDF editor

50% Discount to get PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor

As of the date of publication of this post, there is a 50% discount to have this easy-to-use PDF file editor software. The actual price for a subscription is $159, but due to the 50% discount, the price is reduced by 50% to $79.50.

You might decide to test the free trial version of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor before you subscribe; in this case, one thing you have to take note of is that there is a difference between the free trial version, and the version for subscription―and the difference is this: on the free trial version, you won’t have access to technical support, a watermark will appear on your PDF documents, and you won’t be able to convert more than 5 pages of each document.

Click here to get 50% discount in order to get the software for any PC that uses either Mac or Windows

If you would like to make use of OCR (optical character recognition) to convert images such as scanned paper or pictures from digital cameras into editable data such as PDFs, then you would have to subscribe to PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor for $79.50, which is at 50% discount.

An added advantage of using PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor is that if you subscribe to it, you will be able to convert files into different formats in 23 different languages; this feature will greatly assist people who would like to use the PDF editor for international purposes or businesses.

The drawbacks of using PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor

  • you may have to hover your cursor over each individual tool/icon in order to discover their individual functions. However, despite this drawback, you will find out that the PDF editor is easy to use, and navigate through.
  • the trial version has limitations.

Conclusion

PDFelement Pro 7 is inexpensive, one of the best PDF editors, and can be used on Windows (10, 8, 7, Vista and XP) and Mac to make documents look appealing and professional.

Click here and subscribe at 50% discount rate for PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor software program on any PC that uses either Mac or Windows

The PDF editor for PC comes as a download and can be accessed on any computer in which it is downloaded and installed.

Please share this post with your colleagues who could be students, teachers, business-people, or people who cut across many other types of professions.

Acquire the best PDF file editor by clicking here and getting a 50% discount once you subscribe for the PDF editor software

Four trends that have been changing the ways lawyers run their businesses

The only thing that needs to happen in order for many things to become new in life is “change”; lawyers and their businesses aren’t free from it. Let’s take a look at newly evolving trends that are changing the way lawyers do business.

1. The prevalent use of modern internet technology

A lot of newly-invented information technologies have been widely used by people because of the extent to which they help in reducing expenses on money and energy. The way lawyers do business is changing with respect to various technologies and can be expressed through 7 ways, viz:

  • the lesser amounts of money/energy required to interact with the large and attractive internet world have made lawyers change from doing business offline to doing more of it online.
  • the ability of Skype, Google Hangouts, and other new technology platforms to create “video conferences”, is reducing the need for lawyers to use traditional methods of meeting people for physical interviews and meetings.
  • the direct access which clouds computing provides to clients’ documents from any part of the world has gradually reduced the need for lawyers to sit in physical offices.
  • the ability of data-mining and artificially intelligent softwares to predict the outcome of cases much better has made lawyers reduce their reliance on personal instinct.
  • the inexpensive use of automated documents has reduced the rate at which lawyers contact/pay the same attorney for drafting new contracts because it saves their time and money.
  • the degree to which social networking tools (like LinkedIn, Facebook, etc.) provide direct access to numerous online users, has made lawyers reduce the rate at which they use traditional tools like TV, Radio, and direct mail advertising.
  • the freedom that the increasing number of freelance sites offer, has made lawyers operate more of their businesses online.

2. The instability of the global economy

Lawyers’ businesses are always influenced by constantly evolving economic trends. Globally, the legal industry of today is still feeling the effects of past financial crises which have pressurized lawyers to change from delivering more services at higher costs, to delivering more services at lesser costs.

3. The competition between lawyers offering supporting services

The trend whereby lawyers constantly invent new legal supporting services (which can be free at times) in order to offer them to clients, has changed the way they approach their clients’ needs and requirements, thereby ultimately increasing or decreasing their income.

4. The global pressure on lawyers to beat down legal costs

The global drop in the standard of living has made lawyers gradually forgo the traditional billing-hour model (which has been criticized for rewarding inefficiency) in favor of alternative billing models such as fixed/flat fees. Recent law department metrics survey reports that over 70% of fees paid to counsels are based on fixed rates rather than hourly rates.

Conclusion

Lawyers should always watch out for new trends in order to be prepared for any abrupt changes, and easily place themselves in favorable conditions.

GOD and science: why is GOD not often mentioned in modern-day scientific discussions?

If anybody observes most of the modern-day scientific literature that has been published throughout history, they would likely come to a sensible and obvious conclusion that science and many scientists—who like citing peoples’ works—have not been leaving much room for discussions about GOD works in their literature or publications.

Most people will perfectly understand that science—as a man-made endeavor—relies only on the five senses to arrive at certain beliefs and conclusions about nature.

On the other hand, GOD—Who will remain eternally invisible—can not be perceived or studied by the five physical senses; rather, He can be perceived by man’s spirit and spiritual senses if man has sufficient faith.

Many scientists—especially physicists—do not even believe in the existence of GOD; they don’t believe that GOD controls natural phenomena and things that they study on Earth and in outer space.

To be honest, it’s not always easy to find a scientist, scientific paper or publication, that discusses GOD. Scientists could believe and idolize GOD, but they hardly relate Him with the beliefs and scientific works they publish in their writings.

Until a few decades ago, many religions opposed a lot of scientific theories which have made nature (GOD’s creation) more understandable to mankind than religion has

About half a century ago, almost around the time of Galileo Galilei, some world Christian leaders vehemently opposed scientific theories and called many scientific practices “witchcraft”.

A few scientists and their beliefs about GOD

Aristotle is probably the first natural philosopher or ancient scientist in recorded history to speak and write about GOD. One could wonder what inspired him to do both!

Aristotle called GOD the “unmoved mover” who created the celestial (spiritual) and terrestrial (physical) worlds which He placed side by side, and in harmony with each other.

Aristotle spoke and wrote about the one Supreme GOD, but didn’t criticize or deny the existence of numerous other gods which the Greeks and other nations popularly believed in, and worshipped.

Sir Isaac Newton—a great scientist whose views should always be taken seriously—believed that GOD is the One responsible for ordering motion and gravity, and coordinating the movement of planets.

Albert Einstein believed so much in GOD, His existence and power to such an extent that he attempted to study and analyze GOD’s thinking.

Sir Isaac Newton perceived and believed that it wouldn’t be possible for the level of perfection behind natural phenomena to exist without guidance and control from a supreme being who created such perfection and harmony.

Sir Isaac Newton believed that GOD placed each universe where they are, and they will remain there forever. He also believed that GOD has been preventing planets from destruction due to the sun’s rays which are very powerful.

Some past studies reported that during the classical period, a few leading physicists studied the circumstances surrounding some declarations related to the existence of a supreme GOD and His involvement in the universe!

According to Laplace’s scientific determinism (the knowledge that natural phenomena obey definite scientific laws), all phenomena in the universe obey laws, and there is always a reason or cause for everything that happens.

However, Laplace did not mention GOD in his scientific works. When asked by French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte why he didn’t mention GOD in his works, Laplace replied by saying he didn’t feel the need to do so.

Hawking—who once let the world know he is an atheist—said that no GOD or supreme being rules the universe, and there is nothing supernatural about the universe.

It seems that although most scientists don’t discuss GOD in their works, some of them secretly saw the need for a GOD Who rules creation—this might still be the case in the present- or modern-day.

It is likely that even though many scientists had secret beliefs about GOD, they didn’t write about the connection between Him and their popularly accepted theories which explain natural phenomena—creations of GOD.

It is quite clear that GOD and the supernatural are difficult to explain because they are invisible or spiritual, and many people do not have the spiritual abilities to perceive, understand or explain how GOD and the supernatural work or make things happen.

And although many scientists don’t believe or discuss GOD in their works, GOD created nature and thus has a role in the behavior of natural phenomena studied by science and scientists.

“Science fiction” is equal to “science” plus “faith”—today’s science fiction is tomorrow’s reality

What task could be more difficult for a writer who lived before the times of the biblical characters, Moses and Joshua, to imagine and write about, than an epic tale of the Red Sea being divided for such a long period of time that multitudes of people passed through it without getting hurt?

Or, what could be more challenging for a writer who lived in a godless and scientifically-unknowledgeable era to do than to think and write about a tale of the Sun standing still (or was it actually the Earth’s movement around the Sun that was halted?) until one nation used its enormous light to see its enemies and defeat them all?

Moreover, what task would be more difficult for a writer who lived after Moses and Joshua (but before the time of Jesus) to think about and do, than to write about a person who could walk on water, turn water into wine, feed 5,000 people with only 5 loaves of bread, and also feed 4,000 people with only 7 loaves of bread—amongst other uncountable miraculous acts?

If one compares past records of miraculous events in religious texts with many stories in so-called science fiction movies, there won’t be a great deal of difference to notice between the two; this is due to the fact that all of them radiate great faith that defies natural logic.

If one removes the GOD-factor from the events in the Bible, and plays/acts them on screen, the “miracles” from Bible stories, and the scenes in science fiction movies, could both be easily married together and placed in the same boat called “fiction”.

In most cases, over the ages, it would have been noticed that science fiction movies—which show stories of “impossibilities”—actually foretell many future possibilities and realities that have been/are being worked upon by scientists.

And in the same vein that great events in the Bible and other religious texts defied logic, so do stories of science fiction writers defy logic as well, over and over again—but a number of events in their stories/writings do turn into reality.

So there seems to be no need for any assumption that science fiction movies are aimed at driving people’s imaginations wild and influencing them to think about events that will never happen in the future.

The only difference between the realities/possibilities in Bible, and the fictions/impossibilities in science fiction movies, is that the former have materialized, while the latter are yet to materialize.

Furthermore, the similarity between the realities/possibilities in the Bible, and the fictions/impossibilities in science fiction movies, is that after some time, they all materialized, or they will all materialize—generally speaking, whatever anybody thinks about and believes in, will materialize after some time.

If anyone who is actually in their right senses, conceives, and believes in anything in their heart, then thoughts about “fiction” would never arise—and all things will be/are possible.

This will be quite easy to agree with/understand if one’s thoughts are in harmony with these words of faith that were uttered by Jesus Christ more than 2,000 years ago:

“For verily I say unto you, That “whosoever” shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have ‘whatsoever’ he saith”.

With this statement, coupled with the greatness of its author, it might be unfair to label all written events as fiction, especially in cases where writers or authors didn’t have any intention for their utterances to be interpreted as such.

Examples of impossible scenes people often label as “fiction” in “science fiction” movies

Yes you can see people walking through walls in science fiction (sci-fi) movies. And even though I haven’t watched a sci-fi movie in which someone walked on water, I believe that Jesus walked on water—and that he could have walked through walls if he decided to do just that.

But anyone might state that Jesus could walk on water because he’s more powerful than everyone—he is the Son of GOD. At this junction, it would help to remind us about how powerful Jesus thinks everyone is when he made this same statement: “For verily I say unto you, That “whosoever” shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have “whatsoever” he saith”.

Also, in sci-fi (science fiction) movies you can see people building space-ships (or star-ships) that travel faster than the speed of light.

Yet again, in sci-fi (science fiction) movies you can see people reading other people’s minds, becoming invisible, moving objects with the power of their minds, and moving their bodies at a flash from one position to another distant one.

Furthermore, you can see invisible shields, cities hanging on the skies—and a host of other events that defy logic.

Just like many people were inspired by religious texts, many scientists were inspired by science fiction and became great scientists

The great astronomer Edwin Hubble was fascinated and inspired by the prophetic and futuristic works of Jules Verne which you can read a bit about in Prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?.

Edwin Hubble was so deeply influenced by the works of Jules Verne, that he chose a career in science after he disobeyed his father’s wishes and abandoned a promising career in law—eventually, he became the greatest astronomer of the 20th century.

Carl Sagan, a recognized astronomer and bestselling author who got inspired to work in space science after reading Edgar Rice Burroughs’s “John Carter of Mars” novels—and like John Carter, Sagan dreamt of exploring not only Mars but Venus as well.

A couple of other scientists drew inspiration from the lives of more than one individual writer.

Conclusion

If people have gotten so acquainted with miraculous tales in the Bible and other religious/spiritual texts, that they can’t notice that a bit of fiction might have existed before the great events recorded in the texts occurred, then there will continue to be a general notion that “science fiction” movies are just “fiction”, and will always remain false/fake.

By assuming every thought or written word is “fiction”, we could end up limiting ourselves if we’re really interested in achieving impossibilities or making the impossible become possible.

As much as the GOD-factor is important in life, one has to add faith to the reality or science they believe in; whether any addition ends up producing results that could make people call it fiction or not, is another food for thought for another day.

In order to embrace the lifestyle of those who believe in impossibilities, people would have to grow up and look at fiction from a more positive perspective—regardless of profession and beliefs.

To make this easier, the practical things of life can be combined with having faith in a greater future.

Destruction of scientific knowledge: past events that made it difficult for science to be easily accepted in future

Although the Earth was created about 4 billion years ago, as reported by science, the sum total of available scientific knowledge that was present in the past, is much less available today than it was ages ago—and there are obvious reasons.

The ancient artifacts and manuscripts that have been found in different parts of the world, give valuable information about the scientific knowledge that was put to use in the past, and how successive generations used it, developed it further, and passed it on.

Over the ages it became increasingly difficult for successive generations to accept science because of interference from either religious or political “powers”, and some cataclysmic/destructive incidences that took place in remote ages and led to loss of belief in science, and loss of scientific knowledge/manuscripts.

Even when scientific knowledge was destroyed (or was often ignored, or regarded as myths), either due to the occurrence of cataclysms, or circulating belief that they were heretic, evidence of their existence still continued  to exist in one form or another.

By digging up artifacts and manuscripts from various levels deep within the ground, to using radiocarbon dating and remote sensing techniques, archaeologists and seekers of knowledge would have certainly been able to see breaks in dissemination of scientific knowledge; the breaks have likely hampered the acceptance and development of science and technology in the future, especially after past incidences of destruction!

Information acquired during the ages, along with artifacts and manuscripts that have been discovered on the face of the Earth (rather than underground) have revealed several attempts in the past to destroy scientific knowledge which seeks to make nature more understandable to everybody.

Even when scientific knowledge wasn’t buried, it still faced several attempts to be destroyed. Recall that about 400 years ago, late Galileo Galilei (who was a devout Catholic and one of the founders of modern science) suffered persecution at the hands of the Roman Catholic Church because of his steadfast belief and proclamation that the Earth revolves round the sun.

In October, 1992, Pope John Paul II had to apologize to Galileo Galilei for the ill-treatment he suffered in the hands of the Church because of his insistence that the Earth moves round the sun.

Funny enough, Galileo Galilei’s theory has been proven beyond doubt, and is widely being accepted and respected.

Before we take a brief look at incidences in the past when artifacts and manuscripts of scientific knowledge were destroyed, let us bear this thought in mind: although the creators of ancient scientific knowledge have disappeared, and many of their works seem to have been destroyed, the remaining traces of their works will continue to challenge and inspire future generations of mankind.

Past destruction of scientific knowledge

Ancient scientific knowledge was destroyed in the past, most likely because—apart from cataclysms— science was not as understood and accepted as it is today. Just probably!

In the present-day, it’s quite obvious that science and religion are much friendlier and closer allies than they were centuries ago when religion fought and nagged at science.

At one end, our expectations from the universe have been pushed forward into the future; on the other end, we are now in a position to go back into distant past histories that belong to certain regions or countries of the world, and get a glimpse at what went wrong during the times scientific knowledge was stored in certain locations around the world—in this regard, many researchers and archaeologists have been helping us to do just that.

Atlantis

Atlantis is said to have had a highly advanced scientific and technological culture located on an island now believed to be at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Yes, at the very bottom!

Although Atlantis is believed to have existed for over 200,000 years, its final phase is said to have occurred during a dark period between 17,500 BC, and 10,500 BC when it was destroyed.

Furthermore, it’s believed that the golden period of Atlantis was the highest level of light consciousness and technological advancement to have ever been achieved on Earth, and in any advanced civilization.

Atlantis has been mentioned in many ancient texts, and is believed to have been swallowed by an earthquake—a natural disaster or catastrophe.

Atlantis is also mentioned in Plato’s dialogues (taken from ancient Egyptian records), and almost every ancient culture in the world has myths and legends of ancient worlds (or civilizations) that had vast scientific knowledge in their possession long before natural or man-made activities destroyed them.

In fact the Hopis, Mayans and Aztecs believed that four or more worlds underwent destruction before our own started some few thousands of years ago.

Although details are far-fetched and sketchy, findings from land and sea point to the possible existence of Atlantis in the remote past.

The stories of ancient high tech civilizations that have come and gone are contained in thousands of books that were kept in ancient libraries around the world in the past and present-day.

Many ancient libraries contained a lot of scientific books that were famous among historians and writers—the library at Alexandria, Egypt, is a very popular example.

Sadly, it is a well-known fact that throughout history, certain enemies or powers purposely destroyed huge archives and libraries containing astounding scientific knowledge of the ancient times.

According to famous astronomer, Carl Sagan, a book titled “The True History of Mankind Over the Last 200,000 Years”, once existed and was kept in the great library in Alexandria, Egypt. Unfortunately, the book, along with thousands of others, was burnt by fanatical Christians in 300 AD because they thought the books were full of heresy.

China

Most of the ancient Chinese manuscripts that contained profound scientific knowledge were destroyed in 212 BC by Emperor Chi Huang Ti—the leader who ensured that the famous Great Wall was built.

Vast amounts of ancient texts—which contained mostly science, philosophy, and history—were forcefully seized and burnt; also, libraries, including the royal library, were destroyed.

Fortunately enough, some books survived because certain people who had thirst and love for scientific and philosophical knowledge hid them in different locations, underground and in caves.

Many other books and manuscripts were hidden in Taoist temples where they have been kept and preserved ever since.

Egypt

The great library in Alexandria was one of the largest and most significant libraries in the ancient world; it housed certain types of scientific knowledge that were believed to have originated from outside the world by the ancient gods who visited the Earth from the cosmos, but have long since faded from the face of the Earth.

During the destruction of the library in Alexandria, a great mathematician and philosopher, Hypatia, was dragged from her chariot by a mob and torn to pieces. The mob went ahead to burn the library.

Hypatia—the first mathematician whose life was well documented—was a prominent thinker of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy about 1,600 years ago.

Observation

It is sad to recall the destruction and suppression of useful scientific knowledge that was recorded in the distant past, especially within the last 2,000 years.

What is even more painful is the fact that the destruction of scientific knowledge by mankind was done in a zealous manner and without due regard to reality, life, or beliefs.

In the midst of all destruction and suppression, it’s astonishing to still see a few ancient texts here and there, that have survived and contain scientific information about highly advanced civilizations, and the cataclysms that destroyed them.

Also, most of the texts have a major lesson for us: in the distant past, mankind fell out of harmony with Mother Nature, and a certain catastrophes struck the whole Earth.

In the present day, we can see something similar between the ancient Atlantis myth (or reality?) and the current situation that modern mankind finds itself in.

Will modern mankind survive the impact of its own technology, environmental pollution, and wars?

Will mankind destroy itself as it continuously alters the natural functioning of the Earth, and uses destructive practices to cause disharmony on the Earth?

Conclusion

Even though science has been much more widely accepted in the present-day than in the past, it was/has been difficult for future generations (after past destructions or cataclysms of scientific knowledge) to accept science.

The major reason was the repeated break-ups in dissemination of knowledge to future generations; this  was caused by past destruction of scientific knowledge after cataclysms had occurred, and interference of different powers in the progress and sustenance of scientific knowledge—especially in places where the mystery behind science painted it as black magic, sorcery, or witchcraft.

Scientific assessment of the possibility for humans to inhabit other planets in future

It seems to have been on the road for a very long time: the plans and efforts of science in the past always seemed to turn into realities in the future. Evidence has been too glaring, and to such an extent that it seems most scientific ideas always turn into realities.

Centuries ago, if one had lived in the midst of people who could hardly believe that one day humans would be able to travel through air (rather than land and sea which were the usual routes) to other countries and parts of the world in future, one would likely be less confident to talk about the possibility for mankind to travel to other planets and inhabit them.

In this age when science continues to understand and conquer the Earth, and concentrates more on other planets in our solar system, one would be more confident to talk about the possibility of exploring other planets and inhabiting them.

While this idea of travelling to other planets and inhabiting them sounds awesome and fantastic, it could be frowned upon by religious fanatics who look upon certain ideas and actions of mankind and science as either “impossible”, “weird”, “abominable”, or even “crazy”—this can be quite annoying, especially when most religious people who believe in GOD are well-informed about the extent to which anything is possible.

This brings to mind, one of the greatest statements to have ever been uttered by a great envoy of GOD: “For verily I say unto you, That ‘whosoever’ shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have ‘whatsoever’ he saith”—Jesus Christ.

Take note of the words “whosoever” and “whatsoever”—these words are boundless and not only applicable to those who belong to certain religious groups, or other types of belief systems.

On the other hand, the statement from the great envoy of GOD could prompt some big questions:

  • did GOD create the universe and expect mankind to remain on the Earth, and be active only on it?
  • can other parts of the solar system be used by mankind, just as the Earth has been used?
  • would GOD approve of people being taken from Earth to other planets, stars, or solar systems?
  • would it be an abomination for mankind to inhabit other planets—especially in the event that inhabiting other planets becomes reasonable and justifiable?
  • would mankind be going beyond the limits destined for it if it inhabits other planets?
  • etc.

A recall of the first achievement in space exploration

Each good combination of science and technology has yielded a wonderful result: on July 20, 1969, at 03:00 hours, 56 minutes and 20 seconds, Central European Time, hundreds of millions of people witnessed 2 astronauts, Neil Alden Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, become the first men to successfully set foot on the moon.

In my opinion, this is the most significant achievement in space science and travel because it astonished humanity, enlightened people about great possibilities, and inspired/led to other achievements that followed thereafter.

On the other hand, while mankind was excited about the successful flight to the moon, science was busy occupying itself with exploratory flights to planets such as Mars and Venus.

Venus had been undergoing investigation using unmanned sondes (equipment that send information about their environments) in the same vein that the successful landing on the moon began with investigations using unmanned satellites.

On May 18, 1969, Russia (Moscow) reported that after 130 days, the “Venus sonde 5” ended its journey; also, it covered a distance of 156.25 million miles, and carried weights that summed up to 2,260 pounds.

Have there been attempts to assess the suitability of other planets for human habitation?

Russian and American experiments were conducted in the past in order to assess the suitability of other planets for human habitation—how suitable other planets could be for human habitation.

Late Professors Carl Sagan (Harvard, U.S.A.) and Dmitry Martynov (Sternberg Institute, Russia) both did research work in similar/related areas. Their intention was to assess the suitability of Venus for human habitation, and conquer it.

During laboratory research, they acquired reconnaissance reports from the American Mariner and the Russian Venus sondes (equipment that provide information about their environments).

On 6 June, 1969, the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) estimated that the surface temperature of Venus varies between 400ºC and 530ºC.

This estimate was almost the same with the one reported in 1967 from the “American Mariner V” which radioed/messaged back a temperature of 480ºC and atmospheric pressure between 50 bars and 70 bars—roughly the pressure that exists 900 meters (3000 feet) under water on Earth.

Russia received details from the sondes which made successful soft landings. Generally, information states that the atmosphere on Venus has carbon dioxide content between 93% and 97%, nitrogen between 2% and 5%, and oxygen between 0% and 4%—these data are highly valuable information.

Carl Sagan published his ideas in a scientific periodical that has the enviable and honorable reputation of publishing only research work that has been thoroughly examined.

What conditions would make it possible for humans to inhabit/live on Venus?

Before his death, Sagan believed that in the near future, space-craft could be used to release thousands of tons of blue algae into Venus’ atmosphere, and blow them towards Venus’ surface.

The advantage of using blue algae is that they stay alive at high temperatures and reduce high proportions of carbon dioxide by using their metabolism; because of their ability to continuously and steadily reduce carbon dioxide, surface temperatures would gradually fall below 100ºC.

Furthermore, with the aid of light and water, carbon dioxide could be transformed into oxygen; with temperature lowered below 100ºC, there would be enough water vapor in the atmosphere that could cause rain-fall and subsequent flooding. The availability of enough water (owing to the flood), in combination with light, oxygen and water would be able to support life.

Observation

With the Earth behaving more unnatural and fast becoming uncomfortable due to man-made activities which are spinning out of control, scientists would have been assessing the suitability of other planets, and the possibility for humans to inhabit them—especially if the unexpected is likely to occur.

Conclusion

Although habitation of other planets can be speeded up by more research and improvement of modern space technology, only distant future generations might witness humans inhabit other planets.

The past achievements of science and technology in space have proven that great possibilities lie ahead, and ongoing research will likely lead to success which could be greeted with negative reactions from religious communities and critics.

Could saucer-shaped space-craft be the perfect fit for future interstellar flights?

When we discussed the possibility of interstellar flight and asked whether space scientists will be able to reach and navigate between the stars in future, we noted that, in 1797, after Leonardo da Vinci’s sketches of heavy-looking flying objects were published, many people reacted negatively by stating that machines that would be constructed in accordance with the dimensions/specifications of the sketches, would never be able to leave the ground and fly through the atmosphere.

We further noted that even though many people thought it would be impossible for heavy machines to fly over long distances—yet—hundreds of years later, airplanes have been carrying large quantities of weights over long distances, across land and sea areas that cover thousands of square miles.

In terms of flying, the aeronautical industry and space scientists have conquered the Earth’s atmosphere, gone a step further beyond the highest height of the Earth’s atmosphere, and even landed on the moon.

The predominant thought now would be on how to reach other planets, worlds, stars, and galaxies that are either near or far away.

Which shape of space-craft is commonly being used today? Does the shape of space-craft matter?

Yes, the shape of space-craft matters a lot, and could determine whether deep space exploration will be smoother/more possible, or not; that aside, the major types of rockets in use today are pencil-shaped (and nose-coned).

Although the current crop of space-craft (rockets) have proven themselves technically, to a great extent, one could still wonder whether the uncountable (but unproven?) number of saucer-shaped UFO sightings present mankind and science with a better idea for smoother space exploration—one that is worth studying and learning from. Could the best shape for interstellar flight be the saucer?

But first, what is an unidentified flying object (UFO)

An unidentified flying object (UFO) is an object that is usually observed flying in the sky, but which is unidentified. Although reports of UFO sightings abound, some were confirmed to be conventional objects or phenomena which initially appeared to be “unidentified”.

The term “UFO” was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF), and defined as “any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.”

Due to the increasing spate of incidences (some, too convincing to argue against) between the late 1940s, and 1950s, the term “UFO” became more widespread, and UFOs were popularly called “flying saucers” or “flying discs”.

Generally speaking, due to a significant number of UFO sightings over the past 100 years or so, the term “UFO” has been widely used to refer to extra-terrestrial space-craft: space-craft not designed by human beings, or space-craft originating from outside the borders of the Earth.

The saucer has been the most widely reported shape seen during UFO sightings

At the moment, there isn’t concrete evidence other beings or aliens have traveled from other stars and galaxies to Earth; on the other hand, many people and intelligence organizations know that the most popular shape of UFOs from reports, is the saucer—that’s why UFO/UFO space-craft have been popularly called “flying saucers” or “flying discs”.

With open and hidden information regarding UFOs, it wouldn’t be surprising to find out that space scientists have already assessed the possibility of designing saucer-shaped spacecraft for future interstellar exploration.

If successfully designed, would saucer-shaped space-craft be able to out-perform pencil-shaped space-craft, and go deeper into outer space?

If UFOs really exist, then their domain for flying and predominant activity should be in outer space, in the incalculable and boundless expanse of the widely unknown cosmos.

For whatever reason, UFOs might have taken trips to Earth and other stars for a reason, or just for the sake of leisure. Investigations involving UFOs have convinced many people and scientists that extra-terrestrial spacecraft, especially saucer-shaped ones have been coming to Earth for several decades, centuries, or even thousands of years.

Considering the views in preceding paragraphs, it wouldn’t be difficult to sense that a saucer-shaped space-craft could likely out-perform pencil- and nose-coned ones in terms of traveling far beyond the sun, moon, and planets of our solar system.

But there could be questions

  • if space scientists wish to travel to other planets and galaxies in outer space, wouldn’t it be wise to give the saucer shape a try?
  • would man-made flying saucers be able to spin at high speeds the way UFO spacecraft have been presumed to spin?
  • would saucer-shaped space-craft (which look like flat circular plates) be able to deflect debris in outer space? Could it be able to prevent/minimize possible damage in space?
  • etc.

Observation

While space scientists carry out scientific research in earthly laboratories, they still harbor bolder projects in their minds: the exploration of other parts of the universe using certain shapes of space-craft, and type/weights of materials.

The ease at which spacecraft may travel far into space could lie in designing spacecraft in the form of other shapes, especially the widely sighted saucer shape that has grabbed the imagination of the world’s intelligence agencies, and science fiction, and extra-terrestrial life writers.

Conclusion

The proposition for saucer-shaped space-craft is only intended to prepare the readers’ imagination for something that could likely occur in the near, or distant future.

The stark reality of the ancient giants & gods: a merger of religious texts & scientific evidence

Many seekers of the truth have been struggling to believe in the past existence of the giants and gods of olden times, and make a connection with GOD and our present-day life.

Scientific scholars and those who have a special calling have been busy trying to connect the ancient reality of these beings with the reality of our present-day life—and prove that they actually existed like we exist today.

Since a broad explanation seems to be unavailable at present, quite an appreciable number of people in many spheres (especially religious) of life still doubt the reality of the ancient giants and superhuman beings or gods. It’s quite unfortunate that disbelief still lingers on irrespective of the fact that physical and scientific evidence points to an obvious reality of life in the distant past that cannot just be thrown away forever.

Even though the ancient giants and gods committed evil acts and wore garments of ungodliness on Earth, it is fruitless to just overlook (or accept as fiction) the past period of time when their activities peaked.

If we cannot accept the ancient giants and gods as beings who were created by GOD and lived before disappearing from the face of the Earth; if we refuse to accept that they came into being as naturally as mankind did, even when religious texts and scientific evidence have proven all else, then there will always be disagreements and misunderstandings about their existence in the remote past.

It must be clearly noted that the existence of gigantic and superhuman beings (probably what religious texts refer to as “gods”) in past ages has been substantiated to a great extent by many archaeological/scientific findings.

Because of this, quite a number of people have come to agree—like the ancient Greeks and Sumerians—that giants and gods with spiritual or superhuman powers once existed in remote ages and held sway in many earthly activities; belief in the reality of these beings is becoming widely accepted because science has been presenting strong evidence.

However, on one side there are people (religious, or irreligious) who still don’t believe in the past existence of giants, superhuman beings or gods, and consider it a hoax; while on the other side, there are people who believe in the past existence of giants and gods, respective or irrespective of scientific evidence.

Which side is actually right? This is a question that should be left on the open floor. But regardless of any answer, the truth is that religious texts provide precise information, and science provides fossil evidence of abnormal bone sizes and evidence of weights of ancient stones and structures that couldn’t have been carried by people who have the stature and abilities of the present-day man and woman.

Selected passages from religious texts

Many religious texts written by authors thousands of years ago—and which ought to take literally—clearly confirm the existence of giants and gods (sons of GOD) in the remote past.

Moses tells us in Genesis 6:4 of the Bible:

  • “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of GOD came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.”

Another precise account in Numbers 13:33 states:

  • “And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.”

Deuteronomy 3:11 clearly provides details that can help us make a rough estimate of the physical sizes of giants:

  • “For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? nine cubits were the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it…”.

Selected scientific/archaeological evidences

In contrast to religious texts which provide no physical evidence of ancient giants and gods, archaeologists provide a lot of glaring physical evidence of ancient giants and superhuman beings, or gods.

In recent past centuries, there have been reports and unearthed or discovered archaeological findings that have provided evidence of ancient giant fossil bones, and weights that could only have been carried by ancient superhuman beings or god, rather than human beings:

  • the discovery/excavation of flint (massive hard stone) implements near Sasnych (about 4 miles from Safita in Syria).
  • the discovery of another set of flint tools at Ain Fritissa (Eastern Morocco).
  • “The Stonehenge”, and other megalithic monuments—it is impossible to explain how these structures were created, and how ancient gigantic stone blocks were transported.

When calculations were made on the basis of physical human stature and abilities, it was agreed that the beings who were capable of carrying megalithic implements and tools must have been around 12 ft tall—either giants or gods.

  • the remains of an 11 feet tall giant were discovered near “Lovelock cave”, Nevada, U.S.A., in 1904.
  • the “Giant of Castelnau”, refers to 3 bone fragments discovered by Georges Vacher de Lapouge in 1890. It was estimated from the bone size that the being who possessed it might have been around 3.5 meters (11½ feet) tall. It is believed that the bones might be the largest of any physical being to have ever existed.
  • a 1984 press account mentioned the discovery of bones at a prehistoric cemetery at Montpellier, France. The skulls were reported to be more than 2 feet in circumference; specifically, they were 28, 31, and 32 inches respectively (note that 12 inches = 1 foot). When considered alongside other bones that were collected, it is believed that the bones belonged to a race of beings (or humans?) who might have been between 10 and 15 feet tall.
  • etc.—a lot of others, too many to mention.

If we consider passages from religious texts and the physical evidence provided by science, some people would definitely wonder whether the giants or superhuman beings (gods) carried such large quantities of weights, or had such giant bone sizes.

Where the ancient gods sons of the most high and ever-living GOD? And were the giants the direct descendants of the gods or superhuman beings who had awesome physical and spiritual powers? Who knows?

But the giants and gods seemed to be very intelligent beings with great physical power and know-how (or technology) that was far too advanced for the mankind of remote ages to possess.

Observations

The Bible is not the only text that makes very clear statements about ancient giants and gods, and contains information about giants and gods (or sons of GOD); this information is also available in many other texts besides the Bible.

In fact, many other religious and irreligious texts give descriptions of giants, superhuman men, and women, or gods. Also, the authors of different texts lived during widely different times, and in different places; so they couldn’t have been able to communicate with each other and write using a similar tone.

The myths of the Mayas and Incas state that the first race of mankind was created gods; and before the “Great Flood”, there was a race of giants. They called two prominent giants Atlan (Atlas) and Theitani (Titan).

But inasmuch as the giants and gods have been well documented in the realm of sagas, legends, mythologies, and sacred books, they have never been placed on the same level that the gods have been placed on in many texts or sources—the giants could not fly and control the Earth the way the gods did.

Most texts clearly stated that the giants were offsprings and humble servants of the gods, and carried out allotted tasks on the Earth.

The only explanation for the construction of ancient gigantic architectonic edifices, and the awesome design of artistically dressed boulders that still marvel people today, is that the beings who erected them were either giants or gods—or at most a combination of both.

Conclusion

It is quite obvious that contrary to speculation in some quarters, humans are not the most intelligent, and mentally or spiritually powerful beings to have been created by GOD in the entire universe.

Anyone who has bread different religious or irreligious texts, and a number of scientific discoveries regarding ancient, well-arranged, and accurately-cut giant stones/rocks of giant monsters, amongst others, will find it difficult to accept that human beings constructed these objects ages ago.

The ancient giants and gods are the only reasons for such outstanding archaeological achievements that in the distant past when mankind was much less technologically advanced.

The giants and gods depicted as fantasy in many movies and products of present-day imagination, wouldn’t have stayed in mankind’s consciousness for so long if they were not part of creation.

The gods, whose ancient activities mankind is deeply attracted to, must have been real beings who were much more clever and mightier than mankind; also, they have made a lasting impression on mankind and dominated mankind’s activities and thoughts for many centuries.

Interstellar flight: will space scientists be able to reach & navigate between the stars?

It’s quite known that scientists have designed rockets and spaceships which have been used to go far beyond the boundaries of the Earth. But how far can they keep going?

If we believe there is an uncountable number of stars and galaxies, as reported by scientific studies, we might be inclined to believe that if mankind could understand the laws of extra-terrestrial nature (which might be the same, or different from the laws governing earthly nature), and develop adequate technology, there would be no limits to which mankind could explore outer space.

But even if we imagine a future when science could actually be able to do this, there may still be parts of outer space (universe) that will remain physically unreachable; probably due to their immeasurable distances away from the Earth, or lack of adequate technological equipment to reach them.

The victories of space science against all odds and disbelief

Science did lots of study and work which helped mankind reach the moon in 1969. But long before then, seeds of the event were planted by men who lived in past ages.

One of such men was Leonardo da Vinci who spent his time making sketches of flying machines that looked awesome, and could actually be called prototypes of the modern-day helicopter.

However, da Vinci hid his sketches because of fear for the Inquisition that reigned when he was alive. But after his sketches were published in 1797, many people reacted and stated that the type of heavy machines depicted by da Vinci would never be able to leave the ground and fly through the atmosphere.

Many thought it would be impossible for any force to fly a machine over a long distance; yet, just a couple of decades later, aeroplanes have been carrying large quantities of weights over long distances, across land and sea areas that cover thousands of square miles.

During the 1940’s, when the first rockets were launched, medical doctors stated that space travel was impossible because the human body system wouldn’t be able to cope with the condition of being weightless for several days; yet, the human body system has been comfortable during space flights, and is able to withstand the condition of being weightless.

Observation

During the age of science, at one time or another, many negative assumptions that were made about new ideas have been disproved. The final evidence or proof of successful scientific and technological ideas have always preceded by negativity and speculation that nothing would work—but against all odds and negativity, they did work.

It’s quite interesting to witness successful space flights, and how science is achieving feats that were once ideas popularly frowned upon decades ago.

I believe that each time a rocket is launched into the universe or outer space, the belief of those who think it’s impossible for science to carry out interstellar flight among the stars, will become weaker and weaker.

Why? Because several years ago (probably decades), it was obviously ridiculous to talk about the existence of other planets, stars, and galaxies, and the thought about traveling outside the confines of the Earth. But today, no one can doubt the reality of other planets, stars, galaxies, and the possibility of getting into the vastness of the immeasurable cosmos.

Conclusion

Since science has proven that heavy machines can fly through the atmosphere, it will be difficult for people to disagree that interstellar flight or space travel is possible within our solar system; on the other hand, some people might find it hard to agree that mankind will be able to travel across vast distances in outer space.

Traveling across vast distances might be an easy feat for UFOs, if they actually exist—as speculated from evidence of past incidences related to their presumed activities.

If UFOs are as real as science say they could be, then who knows whether there are many other civilizations in outer space that might have conducted interstellar space travel, probably thousands of years before Earth’s scientists even thought about it.

But why would interstellar space travel be impossible when every wrong thing that was stated about it has been disproved?

I believe so much in what the future has to offer because time after time, again and again, mankind has witnessed how things that were considered impossible, became possible.

History is on the side of scientists, and it’s likely that present and future space scientists will break any current or future challenges that face/would face them.

The future of nuclear power: the more the production, the more the danger to humanity

Since the dawn of creation, and before the beginning of the era of planet Earth and mankind, the ambition to acquire more power and control always existed in beings that were/are much higher than mankind, but were also created by GOD.

The ambition to acquire more control and power, was expressed by wars that occurred in the spiritual realm during the times of remotely distant ages. In fact, records from different religious, holy texts/books, and mythologies confirm the occurrence of such wars.

The same ambition became part of lower beings in the lower parts of creation—on Earth—even amongst different species of animals and living things alike.

In the higher spiritual world, and before the creation of the material world, a war occurred between GOD’s angels, who were led by Archangel Michael, and the fallen angels, who were led by Lucifer, or Satan; and ended with victors and losers alike.

Presumably, great spiritual powers were displayed during the heavenly war. Probably the power or energy was, and still is a million or more times greater than the most destructive atomic weapon on Earth today.

There are different types of opposing powers

One thing that can be easily noticed during any war is that different grades and levels of opposing powers existed/exist: good power vs. bad power; strong power vs. weak power; spiritual power vs. earthly power; light vs. darkness, etc.—amongst many others.

All the same, some forms of power have always been employed in warfare, or fights. In the present age/stage of the world, nuclear power is the most potent and admired tool used during warfare, by many enemies, friends, regions and nations alike.

Nuclear power is top priority in the Earth realm

Nuclear power could be synonymous (not actual) with the greatest powers Lucifer and his angels were capable of employing at the time. But what was the result of the decision to exploit the option of making an attempt to take complete control of the spiritual world?

The result was self-destruction, spiritual decay, and spiritual imprisonment—synonymous with the disadvantages that nuclear wars bring to enemies and opposing powers that engage in earthly warfare.

That was a scene in the spiritual world. In the physical world, history has shown that the more power (in this case, nuclear power) is used to exploit other people and nations, the more self-destruction, natural decay and environmental degradation will be mankind’s fate.

With the level of destruction witnessed and recorded after using nuclear power, no one can deny how potent and destructive it is, and how easy it could bring all forms of life to an abrupt end.

But first, what is nuclear power?

Nuclear power is the energy released by a nuclear reaction. A nuclear reaction is a process that changes the energy level, structure or composition of atomic nuclei. Nuclear power is generated after changes occur in the nucleus of atoms: by fission of heavy nuclei, or by fusion of light nuclei into heavier ones. Usually, loss of mass accompanies both processes.

Advantages of using nuclear power

One major advantage of nuclear power is that it does not produce large quantities of greenhouse gases like coal- and oil-burning plants, and fossil fuels.

Disadvantages of using nuclear power: past accidents and problems

The major disadvantages of nuclear power are technical and political ones, and have kept mankind in fear of harnessing its full potential for decades.

One of the problems associated with harnessing nuclear power is that if for example, uranium atoms are split, and enormous quantities of nuclear waste are produced, they will remain radioactive for a period that could last anywhere between several thousands, and tens of millions of years

What do we mean when we state that nuclear waste will remain “radioactive” for that long? What we mean is that there will be spontaneous emission (occurring without any external effort or cause) of a flow of particles or electromagnetic rays under “nuclear decay” for that length of time—between several thousands, and tens of millions of years.

It is on record that a typical 1,000-megawatt reactor produces about 30 tonnes of “high-level” nuclear waste after a year. This waste is highly radioactive, to such an extent that it shines or glows in the dark.

With about a hundred or more commercial reactors in the U.S.A. alone, thousands of tonnes of high-level waste are being produced each year. It can be rightly assumed that thousands of tonnes of high-level nuclear waste are produced each year, per each set of hundred commercial reactors worldwide.

The 1979 accident at Three Mile Island, U.S.A., slowed down the rate of nuclear power production for commercial purposes. Furthermore, the devastating accident at Chernobyl in 1986 caused widespread fear, and greatly affected nuclear power production for a whole generation.

The impact: nuclear power production projects gradually dried up in Europe and U.S.A., and lost support in France, Russia and Japan where they received little sponsorship in the form of government subsidies.

The Chernobyl incident was a terrible one; even till this day, heat and radiation is still generated around the site where the nuclear accident occurred.

Nuclear waste disposal still poses a big problem

In addition to the problems associated with accidents and explosions, there is also the problem of disposing nuclear waste. Where can we safely dispose nuclear waste? How can we cheaply dispose nuclear waste?

Where can we put nuclear waste? Surprisingly or unsurprisingly, after about 50 years into the atomic age, there is still no concrete answer on how we can safely and cheaply dispose nuclear waste.

In the past, costly errors were made when nuclear wastes were permanently disposed: some nuclear wastes were dumped into oceans by U.S.A. and Russia, and others were buried in shallow pits.

Unfortunately, in 1979, a plutonium waste that was dumped in the Ural Mountains, exploded catastrophically, and required massive evacuation; also, it caused radiological damage around an area of about 400 square miles, between Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk.

Nowadays, another greater problem is that jealousy and hatred between nations could unleash nuclear war with untold repercussions

Yes; you read that right: the greatest problem that causes many other problems in today’s world is the jealousy and hatred people and nations of different races, religions, colour, etc.—this has caused a lot of distrust, and many societal/world problems such as war and environmental degradation.

History has shown that after nations become experts in commercial technology, they start to desire and acquire nuclear weapons. The danger associated with acquiring nuclear weapons and technology is that unruly people who have enough money could buy the weapons and technology easily, and start war(s).

It can be observed that during World War II, the richest nations were the ones that easily acquired technical knowledge, natural resources, and capabilities to create an atomic bomb which used nuclear power to enable it to do what it was designed for.

During World War II, it cost much more to create an atomic bomb; however, in the future, it is believed that uranium enrichment will become cheaper/much less costly, due to the possible invention of newer and cheaper technologies.

The danger we face is this: newer and cheaper technologies could make it easier for atomic bombs to get into the hands of a much higher number of uncertain people, regions, or nations.

An example of the uncertainty that surrounds nuclear power

It is on record that, as per one of the worst breaches of nuclear security in history, an obscure atomic engineer (name not mentioned) stole blueprints of the ultra-centrifuge and components of the atomic bomb, and sold them for profit.

In 1975, while working in Amsterdam for URENCO—which was established by West Germany, Britain, and Netherlands to supply uranium to European reactors—the said person gave the secret blueprints to the Pakistani government, which is widely reported to have hailed this act.

The same person was also suspected to have sold the same blueprints (classified information) to Saddam Hussein, and the governments of Libya, North Korea, and Iran.

Furthermore, it is also believed that Pakistan used the stolen technology to produce a small stockpile of nuclear weapons in 1998.

A little bit later, what was the ensuing nuclear rivalry between Pakistan and India? Each country exploded successions of atomic bombs, which almost resulted in a full blown nuclear war between them.

Most likely, all these incidences occurred because, initially, a blueprint of classified information was stolen by an uncertain/vague person and sold to other people.

Conclusion

Although nuclear energy has/can still have more advantageous uses in future, its future still looks “very very” bleak because of unfortunate cases of destruction that occurred in the past, caused a lot of deaths, and degraded many environments and societies.

At present, the future of nuclear energy seems to be shrouded by the same unfortunate incidences of the past, and the fact that the same unfortunate incidences (or similar ones) could possibly repeat themselves once, or many more times.

Advice

The acquisition of certain forms of power should be included among the “no-go areas of life”—and should actually be a “no-go area”. Why? Because the more you acquire them, the more danger they bring upon mankind and the environment.

Thank you.

Do you think it is a good idea to continue exploiting the capabilities of nuclear power? Or, should the pursuit of nuclear power be halted, altogether? Comments about your opinion will be appreciated in the comment section.

The Spiritual Implication of Human Cloning: What Could GOD’s Perspective Be?

With the ongoing presumption that scientists have cloned, might have cloned, or would clone human beings after successfully cloning animals, what could be the opinion of mankind’s creator about cloning? What could GOD’s perspective be?

But first, what is cloning?

Cloning is a process in which genetically identical or similar-looking entities of the same organism are produced, either naturally, or artificially—as is the practice in laboratory experiments carried out by medical scientists.

Naturally, many organisms produce clones by asexual reproduction. Artificially, medical scientists have been producing clones, or exact copies of cells, or parts of various DNAs.

It is believed that if medical scientists can grow organs of the human body, then they can use the same knowledge to regrow a complete human body and produce an exact genetic copy—a human clone.

However, despite this belief, there is a widely held opinion that human cloning hasn’t yet been achieved, despite many claims to the contrary.

The dawn of artificial cloning

The term “cloning” made lots of airwaves and headlines in 1997 when Ian Wilmut (Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh) successfully cloned “Dolly the sheep”.

Wilmut was able to achieve this great feat by producing an exact genetic copy of an original sheep after taking a cell from it, extracting the DNA from its nucleus, and inserting the nucleus into an egg cell.

Not long after Wilmut’s achievement, many groups around the world followed his lead and cloned a wide variety of animals, including horses, cats, cattle, mice, goats, pigs, dogs, etc.

It’s on record that the first, second, and third generations of the clones exist.

What about human cloning?

Since artificial cloning started, there have been a number of reports and claims that human cloning has been successfully achieved.

On the other hand, other reports claim that any claims about success in human cloning are probably bogus claims which haven’t been proven yet.

If the statement in the previous paragraph is true—although we shouldn’t rely on it—then we can assume that no scientist has successfully cloned any primate, talk-less of a human being.

If human cloning has been successful, even though it hasn’t been authenticated, then what could be the spiritual implication for using such an unnatural process that doesn’t seem to emanate directly from GOD?

What would be the reaction of the world’s great religions? What would GOD feel about it—what, what, what?

What do religious/spiritual texts state?

If we observe the stories of creation in different religious texts, it is quite clear that GOD made just one path for human beings to procreate or produce offspring in the world: by sexual reproduction. This seems to be the only provision GOD made for souls/spirits and the animated parts of bodies (both human beings and animals) to incarnate here on Earth.

But we know that mankind always has a tendency to seek its own plan, which in many cases, is far apart from that of GOD and tends to be more self-destructive: in this regard, medical science might have already found another way to reproduce human beings through human cloning.

The skepticism surrounding human cloning

If judged by spiritual beliefs, skepticism will likely arise around cloning because it doesn’t give an answer to whether souls or spirits animate the cloned bodies of organisms.

The soul or spirit, as we know it, is the invisible and immaterial essence that animates the physical bodies of human beings, and probably other organisms. The soul doesn’t seem to be created here on Earth.

And without a soul, nobody wouldn’t be able to do anything.

Just like natural living bodies are full of life, successful clones are also full of life and are as lively and animated as the complete body of the organisms they were cloned from.

But do the animated (spirit/soul) parts of clones come from human beings, or from GOD? Are they real or not? And who created such souls, if they really exist in the first place?

For sure, it’s already here, or it’s already on the way

One of the long-held dreams of certain medical scientists of the twenty-first century is to create human beings from possible man-made processes.

Like we hinted earlier, it is either that human cloning has already been achieved, or it is yet to be achieved.

It’s possible that scientists have already achieved human cloning successfully, but are hiding evidence about it—for whatever reason(s) best known to them.

Regardless, doesn’t the spiritual implication look scary when it’s obvious mankind has been, or could be able to create new life forms—not through incantations, magic, or prayers, but through knowledge and advancements made in the field of medical science?

Should scientists be careful about what they seek for?

Although medical science has advanced tremendously, and it looks obvious that mankind has/would have an artificial process for reproducing life in an unnatural way—a way not provided by GOD—shouldn’t scientists mind what they wish for?

When we read the stories of GOD’s anger and wrath after fallen angels (who were not human) bore offsprings after mating with mankind, wouldn’t anyone tend to think that science could be erring greatly by discovering and using a process GOD did not design for mankind?

What could be the public’s view about human cloning?

If human cloning becomes possible to an appreciable degree, it might meet social obstacles. How well will it be accepted? Do people think that cloning people is a moral act? Is it ethical to clone fellow human beings?

My personal opinion is that many religions will oppose human cloning, in the same fashion that the Catholic Church opposed test tube babies back in 1978 when Louise Brown became the first baby in history to be conceived in a test tube.

If the public speaks up and rises against human cloning, then most governments would definitely pass laws to ban human cloning technology; or, at best (for scientists or proponents of human cloning), most governments could regulate human cloning with tight fists.

On the other hand, if human cloning is widely accepted, then at most, it’s likely that only a few people would become clones, in just the same way that few natural clones exist in the form of identical twins and triplets—so the hype about human cloning might gradually wear off.

What is GOD’s opinion about the animated part (soul or soul-less?) of a clone?

With the knowledge we have about cloning, we know that many questions could spring up whenever the subject of GOD and human cloning are mentioned in any discussion. Questions like these could arise:

  • If human bodies are duplicated, will the spirits that animate the human bodies also be duplicated or cloned?
  • Will cloned human beings have a spiritual life? Will they be recognized by GOD?
  • If a human being is cloned, will it have any memory? (It has been widely reported that clones have no memory.)
  • Will cloned spirits have a record in GOD’s record book of human life on Earth?
  • Are the medical scientists who practice cloning distorting the true human image of GOD?

Thank you.

Human cloning is a topic that could be difficult to agree with, especially when religion and GOD are mentioned. That’s why any possible comments about your opinion(s) will be highly appreciated in the comment section.

Will mankind’s creation overpower mankind?— The future of AI (artificial intelligence)

It’s normal for everyone to believe that any creator would always have power or influence over their creation.

Believers in GOD know that GOD created man from dust, and then “breathed the breath of life into his nostrils, and man became a living soul.”

On the other hand, believers in mythology believe that the ancient gods (who were probably GOD’s creatures, just like mankind is) had divine power to create and control their creations.

In fact, Greek mythology states that the goddess Aphrodite could make statues spring to life. Aphrodite, who had pity on an artist named “Pygmalion”, after he fell uncontrollably in love with a statue, granted him his best wish and turned the statue into a beautiful woman called “Galatea”.

The god Hephaestus, who was the blacksmith of the gods, had the ability to create a militant army made of metal; he animated each member of an army to move in a way that looked human.

Today, mankind is like Hephaestus, forging metals, animating machines, and “breathing life”not only into clay, but into steel, zinc, silicon, aluminum, and other metals—thereby creating artificial forms of intelligence.

But, will artificial intelligence keep elevating us higher, and to a point of total freedom, or complete destruction?

Will artificial intelligence overpower mankind if mankind is not careful?

Available information points to the fact that, if mankind is not careful, it could be overpowered by its own creation, especially when its creation is given autonomy or a very high degree of it.

What is autonomy?

Autonomy is the ability to make decisions without external influence. In the field of robotics, autonomy is a term used to refer to the ability a robot has to make decisions without human interference or influence.

We may agree that the autonomy GOD gave mankind, has been used by mankind to do many meaningful things—not to mention the meaningless ones.

Autonomous robots (subjects of AI), just like human beings, also have the ability to make their own decisions and carry out actions.

A well-designed autonomous robot is one that is programmed to perceive what is going on in its surroundings, and make decisions based on what it perceives, or “has been programmed to recognize”.

If an autonomous robot hasn’t been programmed to recognize a factor that hasn’t been detected/known but is highly influential, then how good would the robot be at doing the job it has been designed for?

I don’t think it would be that good.

The possibility that autonomous AI can cause problems for mankind

If autonomous robots have been “programmed”, isn’t it possible that they might not have been “programmed sufficiently enough”? Insufficient programming could lead to confusion and a lot of problems.

Although it’s not good to be pessimistic, we may agree that if science & technology is mixed with a selfish, war-mongering, and materially-minded attitude, then autonomous AI could ruin mankind, and probably bring mankind to a bitter end.

Mankind’s creation (AI) has autonomous abilities/tendencies

In the age of science, we’ve witnessed the industrial revolution, the electronic revolution, and many others. In the robotic revolution (which contains both human-decision-based AI, and autonomous AI) there are “Predator drones”: pilotless robot planes that are actually pilotless.

They have been used with spot-on accuracy to target terrorists in countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan. On the other hand, they have been less accurate on a number of occasions.

Currently, there are cars that can drive themselves. Also, there is a highly advanced robot (named ASIMO—Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility) that can do a lot of things some human beings can’t do. It can move around, walk slowly, run, climb stairs, serve coffee, and even dance.

AI based on human decisions, and AI based on autonomous decisions

AI can be controlled, either by human decisions, or by autonomous decisions: it’s either human beings make decisions for robots, or robots make decisions and take actions by themselves—autonomously, and based on programs (programming).

The Predator drone, which operates from the sky, and is used to fire deadly missiles at terrorists, is controlled by a human being who probably sits in front of a computer screen (away from the drone) and selects targets; in this instance, a human being calls the shots and decides what/where should be targeted.

(No one knows for sure whether human beings or the drones themselves are at fault whenever wrong targets are being hit.)

Another example involving a human decision is when a car drives itself under the influence of a GPS map stored in its memory and is controlled by human beings who are somewhere else away from the car.

These two examples won’t easily erase the nightmare of having fully conscious and autonomous robots that might be insufficiently programmed.

Autonomous robots, like “the Roomba”, are capable of making decisions based on what they perceive in their surroundings.

Autonomous robots, which make decisions based on a set of sensors that allow them to perceive their environments, do their jobs without the aid of human beings.

But, if programming is insufficient, will autonomous robots do their jobs properly?

So generally speaking, there are two different types of robots

The first type of robot, which requires human decisions, is remote-controlled by human beings; while the second one, which is autonomous, is programmed to follow precise instructions without interference from human beings.

These types of robots are already in existence and have generated a lot of air/internet waves.

The robots could be slowly entering into human activities, as much as they have been entering into battlefields and places where humans wouldn’t want to waste their time.

If human beings decide not to make decisions—as is the case with autonomous robots—they (humans) could be playing with helpful toys that are two-edged swords, and have the potential to bring a combination of both help and destruction.

Without precise and properly monitored decision-making from human beings, smart autonomous robots (especially those designed for warfare) could bring something unsavory upon mankind.

Conclusion

Although it’s true that awesome breakthroughs have been made, things have to be put into a healthier perspective, especially after scientists once voiced their opinions at a conference where they stated that in about 20 to 1,000 years time, they believe that mankind will create robots that could be as smart as mankind itself.

In addition, The New York Times once ran a headline titled: “Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man.”

And if we examine autonomous robots closely, there is less conviction about how properly mankind will be able to continue controlling them.

Where are scientific & technological inventions taking us to? What more will be discovered in future?

A visit (back in time) to our ancestors

If it would be possible to visit the past times in which our ancient ancestors existed and inform them about the wonderful inventions and discoveries of the present times or age, we might be looked upon as powerful magicians—or as magicians of the ancient gods. Also, if our ancient ancestors were able to visit the present-day times, they might feel the same way.

Until the day mankind successfully produces and operates a time machine (which has been the dream of many fictionists, and the goal of many scientists), the concept of a “time machine” will remain among the impossible feats that many people believe mankind “will never be able to achieve”—as they always say. Remember the story about the Tower of Babel, right? From GOD’s response, almost everyone will believe that people can achieve whatever they set their hearts on.

The awe-inspiring paths of science

Although it’s not yet possible to travel back to the dark ages of our ancestors, we can still take a look at history and see the awesome scientific progression of science from the past to the present: now jet planes soar in the skies at will; rockets explore part of our solar system (The Milky Way), the moon and other planets; scanners give clear views of the inner part of the living body, and mobile phones keep us in contact with anyone in the world.

But this seems to be just the beginning: science is not static; its impact is still multiplying all around us

If it were possible to take count of the number of scientific articles that have been published, we’ll be shocked by the number of times the quantity of scientific information is multiplying every decade or so.

The discovery of new knowledge, innovations, and inventions are modifying and changing all the political, economic, industrial, and social platforms; also, it is either overturning old, reverenced, and widely-held beliefs, or making other ones obsolete.

Where is this voyage of science & technology taking us to? What more will we be able to discover in the future?

Can we picture what the world would look like in the years 2500, 2600, or so? By the year 2500, scientific and technological developments could have risen to such a level that people might think that mankind’s destiny is to become little controllers of the universe—little masters of the universe.

It is widely believed that ancient magicians and the ancient gods of past ages used magical tools, potions, and unknown spells to do great deeds and wonders; in the present and future ages, science and technology will use the faith and science behind AI (artificial intelligence), computers, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and most of all, the quantum theory, which is believed to be the foundation behind earlier technologies.

By the year 2500, will we be able to control the movement and positions of objects with the invisible power of our minds? Will electronics, phones, and computers be able to read our thoughts and inner commands, and do what we want without any need to touch them?

With the advanced knowledge of biotechnology and medicine, will mankind be able to strengthen people’s bodies and extend their life spans? Will mankind be able to create forms of life that have never appeared on Earth before?

Unlike prophet Elijah and some of the ancient gods who were believed to have ridden on fiery chariots, will mankind be able to soar the skies effortlessly in vehicles that don’t require the use of fuel? Will mankind be able to send space ships to nearby and distant planets, solar systems, and galaxies?

Will mankind be able to discover and interact with other more intelligent forms of life that live outside our galaxy?

Possibilities abound because of past & present planted seeds of technology

Although it looks bleak and hopeless for many scientific dreams to turn into reality, the seeds of technology that have been planted support the possibility that anything imagined can be achieved—just anything. Faith, modern science, and technology—not chanting and incantations—could give mankind the power to achieve anything.

But, once again, where are all these scientific & technological advancements leading us to?

Are they leading us to hell, heaven, or anything in between? What will be the final termination point of this amazing, unending, and unpredictable voyage of science and technology?

What will be the greatest and most unsurpassable transition in history?

What will mark the most distinct departure from past and present civilizations?

What is the limit that mankind won’t be able to go beyond?

Unless mankind succumbs to the evil forces of selfishness, stupidity, and chaos—just like it plays around with nuclear energy—the greatest deeds that can be achieved are certainly inevitable.

Progressive enlightenment of mankind: Can mankind become a complete master of natural forces?

In the past ages, natural activities were relegated to the domain of “mysticism”

For countless ages in the past, mankind was a passive observer of nature’s forces and activities which once seemed to be locked in the domain of mysticism and spiritualism. Accounts of the belief systems of the earliest races of mankind show that people once marveled at unknown and unexplainable forces that caused changes in weather, lightning, movement of distant stars, etc.

In the distant past, the forces of nature and natural activities were shrouded in mystery and were often feared and worshipped. In fact, the ancients assumed that natural activities were beyond human comprehension, and the lack of adequate understanding of natural forces made the ancients create myths about gods in order to explain the natural activities that occurred around them.

In recent ages, natural activities have been accepted as natural, and are explained by natural laws

In contrast with the beliefs of the ancients, recent generations have witnessed brilliant people succeed in controlling and tweaking the forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. Hopefully, with the inspiring achievements of this age, mankind could soon become a complete master of nature in the future.

Many natural activities that were once thought to be controlled by divine, spiritual, or mystical power, are now clearly understood due to in-depth knowledge of the theories behind the forces of nature. It’s been proven that most activities that were once considered mystical have always been natural since the beginning of time; and God who is the creator of these forces, made them always adhere to certain rules which could be effectively controlled—yesterday, today, and forever.

Activities, considered as mystical/spiritual in past ages, are now accepted as “natural”

In ages bygone, there were predominant mystical or spiritual influences of magicians, prophets, men of God, etc. In recent ages, we’ve had technological advancements that still look like magic, and could pretty well have been relegated to the realm of mysticism, witchcraft, or sorcery ages ago.

Today, we have a solid understanding of the forces of nature, and unlike the ancients who lived in the dark ages of science and didn’t understand the forces of nature, we don’t believe that lightning bolts, environmental plagues, etc., are the handwork of any gods.

It’s true that scientific predictions would likely not always be exact, even though they’ve been authoritative, and most times correct because they clearly express and approximately quantify the forces of nature that drive the world—and probably the entire universe.

Each time the forces and laws of nature were thoroughly studied, understood, and described, their applications have changed human history and the way mankind views natural activities that have been propelled by natural forces.

Three major forces of nature & their impacts

(1) The first force we’ll look at is the force of gravity

Isaac Newton was the first to give a natural and convincing reason/explanation why objects move after being exerted by forces, rather than by the influence of some gods or mystical spirits. Newton’s insight contributed a lot to the success of the industrial revolution which came much later.

(2) The second force is electromagnetic force

This force lights our world up: think about a force that lights up our cities and powers all our appliances. When great scientists such as Michael Faraday, Thomas Edison, and others gave insight that explained the effects of combining electricity and magnetism, a clear pathway was prepared for the electronic revolution which has been a home for the greatest scientific discoveries and wonders.

(3) The third force is nuclear force

During the 1930s, and around the time the atom was split, Albert Einstein wrote down a famous equation (E = mc2) which made it possible—for the first time—for scientists to understand the forces that light up our world and the universe. This understanding revealed the secret behind the brilliant lights from the stars. Also, it led to the creation of the power behind atomic weapons which have destroyed a lot of lives and property.

Important points that should be noted

Fortunately, with the efforts of the most brilliant minds, mankind now has a great understanding of these major forces—there could be quite a good number of others that we could consider as minor forces.

Gravity is now properly described by the theory of general relativity (note: some theories and predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics which is the core of engineering principles), while electromagnetic and nuclear forces are well described by the quantum theory which has given insight into happenings in the invisible subatomic worlds. Unlike the industrial and electronic revolution, quantum theory led to the creation of the laser, transistor, and the digital revolution which is one of the pillars of modern technology.

The secret behind the DNA molecule, which was unknown and mysterious in ages past, has been unlocked by scientists through an understanding of the quantum theory. Furthermore, this has created a firm foundation for biotechnological revolution and the successful alteration of natural genes. The result is that mankind is now much more capable of seeing what science and technology will be able to achieve in years to come.

What more should we expect?

As it has happened over recent years—even up to the present time—there will be more unexpected and completely new surprises that would leave mankind speechless and in great awe. One thing is sure: the theories behind natural forces, which were unknown to the ancients, but are now understood and used as drivers of modern science and technology, would likely not be altered—at least in the foreseeable future. However, we can agree that improvements could be made when necessary.

Summary

Mystic and so-called spiritual beliefs behind natural activities in past ages are now clearly explained by natural laws. In ages to come, it wouldn’t be a surprise to see mankind become complete masters of nature and take total control of this God-given world—and probably some other worlds out there.

Probably, then and only then would tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, climate change, planet-destructive comets, and other negative and uncontrollable natural activities be subdued or even prevented. If this happens, mankind will be completely in charge of the world in the way that God intended when he handed over the dominion of the world to man in the beginning.

Prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

If we read the lifestyles of some people who have made great contributions to technology, but whose religious statuses have not been as pronounced as their contributions to technology, would we say such people were servants of technology, or materialism? In addition, if certain people have been able to foresee future technologies before they were produced to help mankind, would we say that such people are prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

Two great visionaries

Before we go further, let’s take a brief look at a part of the lives of 2 great people who are worthy of mention: Leonardo da Vinci, and Jules Verne—not to mention Nostradamus and many others who were more religiously inclined. For the average person, predicting what would happen in one or two years, is a difficult task; imagine how much more difficult it might be to predict what would happen in a century’s time from today.

Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne left behind evidence suggesting that irrespective of challenges faced by scientists, researchers, and our world as a whole, people who have love for humanity, could also have the power to divine technologies that would alter the fate of humanity in the near future.

If anybody has the welfare of humanity in their heart, but doesn’t preach about GOD the way we think they ought to, would we be right to say they are not messengers of GOD? Also, if anybody can divine the future, even though they can’t divine the so-called “things of GOD”, would we be right to say they are not prophets of God?

Usually, wherever the word “prophet” is pronounced, even if jokingly, there is often a sense of GOD-related fear and reverence attached to it. The word “prophet” has various definitions, but generally speaking, most people believe a prophet is sent by GOD (or a divine being), and for spiritual reasons rather than material or technological ones.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci was a scientist, painter, thinker, and great visionary. During the late fifteenth century (around 1400s), he drew clear, well-detailed, and beautiful diagrams of technologies and machines that would fly in the skies 500 years ahead of the time they actually started flying. His drawings included helicopters, airplanes, parachutes, etc. As many of us would agree today, it’s possible that the flying machines da Vinci drew could have been constructed and made to fly during his generation—about 600 years ago.

Another astonishing fact is that during the 1950s, a manuscript was discovered: it contained a sketch for a warrior automaton (machines with movable parts; they were programmed to carry out complex tasks) wearing a German-Italian armor; it could sit up and move its arms, neck, and jaw. This too, like many other of his sketches, was subsequently built, and actually worked. Many other works reveal that da Vinci was always forward-thinking—a major attribute of anyone who divines the future and foresees the transformation of ideas into reality.

Jules Verne

Like Leonardo, Jules Verne had the ability to visualize the future, especially after interacting with some highly advanced and forward-thinking individuals of his time. In 1863, Verne—who was in reality, a great novelist—put pen to paper and wrote a prophetic novel called “Paris in the Twentieth Century”. In the novel, he forecasted what would happen in the coming century.

Unfortunately, the novel got missing but was found when his great-grandson came across it accidentally—when it had been lying in a safe for almost 130 years. After realizing that he had found treasure, he arranged for it to be published in 1994, and it became a best-seller.

Verne predicted that in 1960 Paris would have TVs, air-conditioners, elevators, glass skyscrapers, fax machines, high-speed trains, gasoline-powered automobiles, fax machines, and even something resembling the internet.

In fact, with uncanny accuracy, Verne predicted most of the technologies in modern-day Paris. Many people have come to understand that his predictions were not a fluke because, in 1865 (about 2 years after 1863), he made another stunning prediction in which he gave precise details of a space mission that would send astronauts to the moon, more than 100 years before 1969 when it actually happened.

How possible was it for Jules to make accurate predictions 100 years before the actual time in the future? Although we might not be able to answer that question, one thing is quite clear: Verne saw a very clear image of how science and technology would change civilization in the future and produce marvelous works—and he was spot-on and exact in doing so.

Were they prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

With the valuable amount of information regarding the prophetic insights of Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne, we would like to ask: is it possible to predict technological feats or world events that would occur in 2119, 2200, and thereafter? And most importantly, were da Vinci and Jules prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

Following the practices of da Vinci and Jules—penning ideas in the form of words and sketches—we believe that most of the world’s current leading scientists have the prophetic ability to foresee future prototypes of technologies in their minds, and other brilliant ideas that will reshape our world and the future. In a way, the future is already here.

Why Biofuels Would be Used as an Alternative to Jet Fuel in 50 Years’ Time

Assessing the sustainability of biofuels for aviation has been an area of interest for researchers because it is a renewable and more environmentally friendly alternative to jet fossil fuel which is non-renewable and greatly diminishing day by day. Aviation biofuels, which are fuels produced from renewable biological resources like plants (or indirectly from industrial, domestic, or agricultural wastes), are seen as a major option that could reduce the climatic impact of aviation and enhance decarbonization in the coming decades. Despite reports of uncertain issues regarding the use/sustainability of aviation biofuels, abundant evidence from research—too many to list—has been pointing to the fact that sky-rocketing developments in aviation biofuels, and global conditions of the economy/environment, would favor the use of biofuels as an alternative to jet fuel in the next 50 years.

Reasons why biofuels would be used as an alternative to jet fuels

(1) The existing aviation fueling infrastructures (engines and mechanical/electrical systems) do not require large modifications because aviation biofuels are readily compatible with them (Kivits et al., 2010)—meaning that biofuels are a feasible replacement for the jet fossil fuels that are currently being used in large quantities in existing aircraft fleet.

(2) Aviation biofuels are preferable because they are more environmentally friendly than jet fuels. Among other alternatives like hydrogen cells and solar-powered aircraft, biofuels seem to be the most practical option for current aircraft engines; in fact, studies carried out by Wong (2008) and Deurwaarder (2005) state that biofuels are less polluting and more sustainable in terms of production and consumption. Evidence from other studies suggests that biofuels are a good alternative to conventional kerosene-based jet fuels (Blakey, 2011).

(3) There is enough land that can be used to cultivate raw materials (biomass) for the production of aviation biofuels. Doornbosch & Steenblik (2007) reviewed many studies and are quite realistic in their assumptions: they see the potential for expansion of over 80% of more cultivatable land area mainly concentrated in Africa and South & Central America for the cultivation of bio-energy crop production in 2050; in fact, it had even been stated that half of this land could be concentrated in seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia (Fischer et al., 2006).

(4) Scientists and researchers are optimistic regarding the sustainability of aviation biofuels; in fact, scientists and NGOs had stated the possibility of improvements in sustainability that could be made with regard to biofuels (McBride et al., 2011).

Conclusion

Even though sustainability has been a well-researched and much-debated topic in the past few years, there is still a lack of concrete evidence in reviewed literature to show precise negative impacts (Ribeiro, 2013).

Fossil fuels are continuously depleting and may completely diminish in the future; thereafter, mankind, which has been majorly dependent on fossil fuel, will be inclined to depend on biofuels which are renewable, and can be easily cultivated in any country and used in the aviation industry.

Studies have reported that some issues could hamper the sustainability of aviation biofuels; they include: energy security, food, rural development, provision of employment, and land rights and human health issues (Ribeiro, 2013; Scovronick, 2014; van Eijck et al., 2014; Raman et al., 2015).

In terms of impact, Lee et al. (2010) had stated that aviation causes negative RF (radiative forcing) or cooling by emitting Sulphur and destroying Methane; however, these outcomes have lesser impacts than positive RF or warming, which is due to other types of emissions.

Despite the issues reported in some studies, the author believes that researchers will continue to devote their time towards discovering higher-grade and genetically engineered biofuels that would erase certain/uncertain environmental and economic issues. Enough evidence has shown that history is on the side of positive-thinking researchers, and they will always find ways to control or eradicate any challenges faced by mankind.

References

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Lee, D.S., Pitari, G., Grewe, V., et al. (2010). Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation. Atmospheric Environment 44(37), pp. 4678-4734.

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